Why is castration of pigs necessary, how and at what age is it carried out?
Pig breeding is relatively easy to do, but even in this business, beginners always have questions, and one of the most common: is pig castration necessary? And if necessary, at what age should it be carried out, and is it possible to carry out this procedure on your own?
What does pig castration give?
Since, as a result of castration, the sexual activity of pigs completely stops (the gonads are removed), you need to determine in advance which pigs should be left for further reproduction, and which ones you will feed for meat - these are the ones that should be castrated.
When non-castrated boars become castrated hogs, their inherent increased aggressiveness disappears, the animals become calmer.
In growing boars, under the influence of sex hormones, substances such as testosterone and skatole begin to form in the body, which impregnate all boar meat with a specific smell. It is unlikely that you have ever tasted the meat of uncastrated boar, otherwise you would well remember how unpleasant it smells when cooked. With the removal of the testicles, where the hormones responsible for the "fragrance" of the boar are formed, the characteristic smell disappears, and the meat becomes quite suitable for eating.
Piglet castration video
In addition, after the castration procedure, the piglets' metabolism and the biochemical composition of the blood completely change, due to which they feed better, the pork turns out to be tender, soft, and contains more fatty layers. Neutering pigs is profitable, because neutering requires less feed for weight gain, and their meat is more appreciated by consumers.
One cannot fail to note the positive effect of castration on the character of pigs: when non-castrated boars become castrated hogs, their inherent increased aggressiveness disappears, the animals become calmer.
What is the best age for castration?
Generally speaking, it is possible to castrate both small pigs and adult boars at any age. But the younger the pig, the easier it is to endure the operation, and the castration of boars in adulthood is fraught with complications. Therefore, pig breeders generally try to castrate boars for up to one and a half to two months.
Although some castrate small piglets three to five days old, explaining that at such an early age the operation for piglets is the least traumatic, blood loss is negligible, the wound heals very quickly and without consequences, and the animals themselves are much less resistant.
You can castrate both small pigs and adult boars at any age
The younger the piglets, the easier it is to perform neutering at home without helpers.
Experts recommend neutering boars five days before taking them away from the sow, so that the wound has time to heal before the young are transferred to separate enclosures. In addition, according to research by scientists, piglets castrated at one week of age grow more slowly than those who were castrated at two weeks.
In whatever time frame you plan to castrate, remember that boars intended for bacon fattening must be subjected to surgery before they reach two months of age. And animals raised for fattening are castrated no later than six months, otherwise the already manifested sexual instincts persist even after the removal of the gonads, and the group keeping of pigs becomes difficult.
How is pig castration carried out?
If you intend to castrate the pig on your own without using the pen, you will need an assistant who will hold the animal tightly.
The best option is to entrust the castration of pigs to a veterinarian or an experienced person who has a special machine for this purpose. Small pigs do not need to be pain relieved, but a local pain reliever can be used. For adult boars, azaperone (4% solution) is used intramuscularly.
Piglets are castrated open waycutting the scrotum so that the testis protrudes beyond it. The transitional ligament is separated with a scalpel or finger and a ligature (sterile suture without a needle) is applied to the spermatic cord, removing it at a distance of one and a half centimeters from the ligature.
For castration of adult boars and pigs with hernias, use closed way, which dispenses with opening the vaginal membrane. Instead, it is dissected from the surrounding tissue using a gauze pad. Then, at the inguinal ring, a suture is placed on the spermatic cord and the testis is cut off below it.
If you intend to castrate the pig on your own without using the pen, you will need an assistant who will hold the animal tightly. Castration is carried out at home as follows:
- the pig is fixed by putting his back on his knees, or by holding his hind legs and holding his head between his knees;
- the castrating one grabs the scrotum and pulls it so that it is convenient to cut the skin parallel to the white strip;
- having made an incision, the testicle is squeezed out of the membranes, separating it from the transitional ligament;
- holding the testicle with the left hand, the spermatic cord firmly grab the fingers of the right hand as low as possible and cut it off;
- do the same with the second testicle;
- after the operation, the wounds are treated with iodine tincture.
After the operation, the wounds are treated with tincture of iodine
How pigs are castrated at home, the video will give you a clearer idea. But remember that pigs with scrotal hernia or testicular abnormalities are best sent to a specialist for castration. And if you have planned vaccination and deworming of pigs, they should be carried out no earlier than two weeks after castration.
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Fast compost is great fertilizer and no campfires
The last month of summer is drawing to a close. The autumn harvest is about to begin. The vegetable garden and garden will be "decorated" with heaps of dry weeds, leaves and plant debris. Where to put them? And the first thought is born - to burn. But a prudent owner will not burn such "wealth". All plant debris can be quickly and easily converted into organic fertilizer. There are several ways to quickly obtain organic matter for fertilizing garden crops through aerobic (fast) composts. They will be discussed in this article.
Fast compost is a great fertilizer and no campfires. © dandelion_deals
Castration of kids: how to carry out
The castration of kids is done in infancy. This is done so that subsequently the meat of the animal does not have a specific smell.
The word castration refers to the removal of reproductive organs in all animal species. If the females are castrated, the ovaries are removed, if the males are the testicles.
Castration is used to improve the taste of meat, to gain weight for the animal. Also, castration prevents aggressive behavior of the animal.
Castration of kids
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The castration of goats is done by bloodless methods. The first is castration with forceps. You can start such a procedure only 14 days after the birth of the animal. The operation to remove the testicles of young goats can only be performed by a veterinarian.
For the castration of the kids, special forceps are used, which first grab one testicle and bite sharply, then the same thing happens with the other.
If during the operation the testicle did not bite right away, then the procedure should be repeated again, slightly changing the place. It should be slightly higher than the previous one.
With the correct execution of the castration operation, the kids will hear a crunching sound during the testicle bite.
After completing the operation, to prevent infection, it is imperative to treat the wound. After the procedure, the breeder should carefully monitor the condition of the wound and periodically treat it until it is completely healed.
The second method is called elastration. It can also be done 2 weeks after the baby is born. The method consists in putting on a special ring on the scrotum of a young animal. Because of the ring, the male loses the ability to produce seminal fluid, which leads to the reflection of the reproductive organs.
Castration of adults
It is customary to castrate goats at the age of 3-4 years. This is done after an adult goat loses the ability to inseminate goats in order to improve the taste of meat.
Castration of adult goats should only be performed by an experienced veterinarian. Although the procedure is not very difficult and painless enough, surgical intervention can always have serious consequences. And in veterinary clinics, both disinfectants and painkillers are always at hand.
There are two ways to castrate adult goats: open and closed.
Before proceeding with surgery, the animal should be tied tightly and left in the cross-dorsal position.
- Before the operation, 10 ml of 3% novocaine is injected into the scrotum of the animal for anesthesia. If the goat is not very old, then you can do without an anesthetic, just wipe the testicles with alcohol or iodine solution.
- For the operation in a closed way, it is necessary to prepare the testicles. This consists in trimming wool from the genitals of the animal and then lubricating the scrotum with iodine.
- After that, the skin on the scrotum is pulled with the fingers of the left hand, and the pulled skin is cut off with the right hand, so as not to damage the testicles of the animal. After the testicles are visible, incisions are made in them and the testes are taken out.
- After the operation, the skin of the animal on the scrotum is sutured, and the cut testicle is trimmed. After the procedure, the cut site is treated with streptocide in the form of a powder.
The closed bloody method of castration is rarely resorted to.
Possible complications after castration
If the operation was performed incorrectly, then complications are possible.
Mucus-like bloody discharge with blood clots appears from the surgical site. Bleeding is possible, which leads to the death of the animal. With such symptoms, it is necessary to call a specialist who will examine the animal and give instructions for treatment.
Any animal after castration requires careful care and control. After surgery, livestock should be kept in a clean and dry pen.
What is the procedure for?
Meat from an uncastrated animal has an unpleasant odor. It tastes hard and gives off unwashed goat meat. It is impossible to eat such meat. Many breeders, having overexposed the cattle and not neutered it in time, are trying to sell low-quality meat on the market. But you won't be able to cook a delicious dish from it. The smell is not interrupted by anything, no matter how you soak it.
By neutering young goats and lambs, you can be sure that the meat will be free of any bad smell. It can be eaten both boiled and fried.
Currently, several methods are known for grooming hogs and pigs. All of them are divided into bloody and bloodless operations.
All types of castrations are classified as bloody, in which there is a violation of the integrity of the skin or any membranes or organs. They are closed, open and partial.
Bloodless refers to killing in other ways, without being introduced into the body. Distinguish between chemical, mechanical and X-ray castration.
These three methods are the most costly and complex, therefore, their use is unprofitable from an economic point of view.
Consider the bloody methods of grooming: closed and open methods.
They are mainly assigned only to adults or very large boars. As well as animals with inguinal hernias.
The operation is planned no later than two weeks before and no earlier than this period after the end of prophylactic vaccinations against infectious diseases, as well as no less than two months before slaughter.
- Breeding old boars.
The boar is securely fixed on the back, or in another way. At the same time, a loop of strong rope is thrown onto the upper jaw, which is then pulled through the ring. Anchored in the floor, or through a crossbar near the floor between two posts. Then the skin of the scrotum is washed with soapy water, dried and tincture of iodine is applied. The iodine treatment serves two purposes: decontamination and tanning of the leather to make it easier to cut. Then local anesthesia is carried out with a half-percent solution of novocaine, after which the skin of the scrotum is collected in a fold (transverse) and dissection is carefully done. So as not to damage the common vaginal membrane (the membrane that covers the testis). It is easily recognizable by its bluish tint. Then, the testis is grasped right through it, the skin of the scrotum is pushed up to the abdominal wall. After that, the testis, together with the outer shell, is turned around itself once and sutured with a ligature as close as possible to the inguinal rings. After reliable dressing, they retreat from this place about one centimeter and cut the spermatic cord together with the sheath. After that, Tricillin powder is applied to the wound and a therapeutic aerosol, such as "Chemisprey", is sprayed.
- Castration of boars with scrotal hernia.
It is advisable to operate on hernias at the earliest age. Before the operation, the animal is fixed lying on its back, lifting the back part. Then the preparation of the operating field is carried out in the same way as described above. The surgery field is anesthetized. The skin is dissected opposite the hernial ring, while maintaining the integrity of the vaginal membrane. Then it is carefully separated from the skin of the scrotum with gauze swabs in order to prevent slipping. Further, the contents of the hernia (most likely an intestinal loop) are pushed back into the abdominal cavity. In this case, the testis, vaginal membrane and spermatic cord twist around themselves by two or three turns, making sure that the intestinal loop does not get here. As close as possible to the inguinal or hernial ring, the ligature is sutured and cut off. The stump is securely stitched again. Then the surgical site is treated with an antibiotic and a protective aerosol is applied.
- Partial castration.
For this, the boar is reinforced in a dorsal position. The incision is made in the same way as in the open method of weeding. Only in this case, after dissection of the vaginal membrane, the ligament that connects the epididymis with the testis is not cut, due to which the testis remains well fixed. After that, the white membrane of the testis itself is dissected by about 2 cm and, squeezing the testis parenchyma with your fingers, squeeze it through the incision area, leaving only about one third of it. Then it is burned with an iodine solution. The remains of the testis with the appendage are set back into the cavity of the vaginal membrane. The disadvantage of this method is that the sperm production function does not completely stop.
Boars aged 60 days and older are bailed in this way. But more often the pigs are castrated a couple of weeks before weaning or a few days after it.
Based on characteristics such as the age or weight of the animal, it is fixed either by its hind legs upside down, or in a prone position on various devices (a bench, a special bench, on an inclined board, or on a table).You can fix the piglet on its back, bringing all four limbs together. No pain relief is applied. The hair on the skin of the scrotum is cut off, and then the incision sites are treated with any antiseptic. Then, with the left hand, they grasp the testis between two fingers (index and thumb), strain the skin of the scrotum and make an incision with a scalpel of all its tissues, including the vaginal membrane itself. The incision is made with a scalpel parallel to both sides of the suture of the scrotum, stepping back about one centimeter on each side.
The exposed testis is taken out, the ligament is cut, which connects the epididymis with the testis. Then, with one hand, the testis is pulled slightly by the cord, or, conversely, the cut tissue is pushed upward to the abdominal wall, while exposing the cord. Then a strong ligature is applied to it. Then the testis is cut off below the imposed ligature. The edge of the stump is also treated with iodine solution, and the wound is covered with tricillin powder.
- Castration with Sand forceps.
This technique is used in adult boars. Forceps are applied to the exposed spermatic cord, and squeezing it, crush it. Then it is unscrewed until it separates. The stump is processed in the same way as in the previous method.
- Castration method by breaking the spermatic cord.
This technique is preferred for boars aged 10-20 days. Its technique corresponds to the ligature method, but at the same time the spermatic cord, pulling up, is twisted until it is completely separated, or it is cut off with a quick jerk, fixing the spermatic cord before this with a clamp. The break is made near the clamp, after which it is immediately removed, and the castration wound is filled with antiseptics or emulsion.
In gilted gilts, the average daily weight gain increases by an average of 10-15%, the fattening period is reduced by about a month, feed consumption is reduced by 10-20%, the quality of meat and lard is noticeably improved. It is recommended to castrate gilts with a live weight of about 60 kg for further fattening. With the bacon type of fattening, it is not economically justified to bache the gilts.
The technique of sterilizing gilts is quite complex and is rarely used.
Castration of pigs - how and for what - garden and vegetable garden
As mentioned above, it is believed that the pig is the second animal, after the dog, domesticated by man. It happened about 7 thousand years ago, in the Stone Age, on the territory of Egypt. But it must be said that domestication did not leave a deep imprint on pigs. These are incredibly hardy and intelligent creatures, capable of without much difficulty - if circumstances arise - to live without a person.
The ancestor of the domestic pig, the boar, or wild pig, is a massive, imposing animal. Its height is about a meter, and its weight reaches 150 kg. The old males - the cleavers are armed with razor-sharp fangs about 15 cm long. Females and young males have smaller fangs. And what are fangs for a boar? For self-defense, for digging out worms, larvae, as well as tubers and rhizomes from the ground. He loves acorns, all kinds of nuts, including pine nuts. In addition, wild pigs swim well and, traveling in search of food, can swim across rivers, and bearded pigs - even the straits between islands.
The smallest pigs, the size of a hare, dwarf - live in the foothills of the Himalayas. There are so few of them that they are included in the International Red Book as an endangered species.
In the savannahs of Africa lives warthog - a wild pig, so named for the fact that its muzzle is covered with huge skin warts that turn into solid bumps in old males. The average length of canines in male warthogs is 30 cm, but they can grow up to 70 cm. Warthogs are diurnal animals. Among pigs, they are the most strict vegetarians and feed mainly on grass. They nibble the grass, kneeling down, and in such an unusual position they move through the pasture, since they have thick calluses that protect their legs from injury. Warthogs are funny creatures. Two warthogs in the St. Petersburg Zoo dozed for hours during the day, patiently waiting for the visitors to leave them alone, and in the evening they started a fun game. They arranged catch-ups, jumped one on top of the other or flopped down on their knees opposite each other, peering into the partner's “face” for a long time, so that they suddenly jump off their seats and bury themselves in a pile of hay at the same time. And all this fuss took place in complete silence, not disturbed even by the stamping of feet on the floor strewn with sawdust.
Very impressive, brightly colored animals - African brush-eared pigs... Unlike their closest relatives - warthogs, they gladly eat animal food: carrion, small animals, they even attack newborn ungulates. Short, no longer than 15 cm, but sharp fangs help them to hunt. Bristle-eared pigs do not like dogs and sometimes they ruthlessly kill and eat them.
Bearded the pig should rather be called sideburn, since it does not have a real beard, in our understanding of the word. Light bristles grow on the sides of the head from the corners of the mouth to the ears. Growth bearded from a European wild boar. These pigs live on the Malacca Peninsula and on the islands of Kalimantan, Sumatra, Java. They live in small family groups. Like all pigs, they are omnivorous, and fruits take a serious place in their diet. But since fruits do not grow on the ground, and pigs are not able to climb trees, bearded families accompany gibbons and herds of macaques wandering in the crowns of trees. Monkeys, as you know, are fastidious creatures and, once they bite a pink-cheeked fruit, they throw it on the ground in order to immediately try another. Connoisseurs of nature claim that monkeys often amuse themselves by throwing specially picked fruits at pigs and watching their behavior with interest.
Babirussa not at all like an ordinary pig. She has a small head, short ears, a tiny patch, an arched back and long thin legs. The most memorable thing about her appearance is two pairs of large fangs, bent back and intended for decoration. The lower pair takes its usual place between the teeth of the lower jaw. The canines of the upper pair grow upward, pass through bone and skin, and stick out not from the mouth, but directly on the muzzle. In older males, the tips of the upper canines reach the forehead or bend 180 degrees and grow back into the skin of the snout. In length, they reach 40 cm. Females do not have upper canines, but the lower ones have a decent size. Babirussa is found only on the islands of Sulu and Sulawesi, where it lives in tropical rain forests, reed and mangrove thickets. Babirussa eats a lot of green shoots, grasses and leaves, and her stomach is more complex than that of other pigs. The special microorganisms inhabiting it decompose fiber, as happens in real ruminants.
Babirussa meat is of excellent taste and not very fatty. Locals often keep these pigs as ordinary pets, although it is not profitable to breed them: they have only two teats and the female brings 1-2 cubs. She just can't feed it anymore. Perhaps it is for this reason that the number of wild babirus is rapidly declining, and this species is also included in the international Red Book.
But our boars and descended from them domestic pigs very prolific. You can get 14 piglets from a sow in one farrowing. And she pigs, as a rule, twice a year. The pig absorbs nutrients from the feed better than other pets, including poultry. For each kilogram of growth, it spends 30–35% less feed than cattle.
How to choose the right pig when buying? The main requirement is that he must be healthy: breathe evenly, be well-fed, the bristles must fit snugly to the body. For fattening, it is better to take a piglet that is long, with a wide chest, a strong back and rump, legs of medium height and hooves set obliquely. The tail should be crocheted. Pigs on low legs stop growing early, while pigs on high legs grow long and gain weight well. If the piglet has a snub-nosed profile, this is a sign that the animal is rapidly gaining weight. A pig with a heavy head and a straight profile will grow rapidly. It would be nice to watch the pig while eating and take the one that has enough food with appetite.
It is better to buy a piglet at the age of two months and immediately accustom it to different feeds. It is easier to feed spring piglets: in summer there is a lot of available food: nettle, quinoa, horse sorrel, wormwood (it makes you appetite). But not everyone gets plump, well-fed and clean pigs. Sometimes you have to take a thin and weak one. It is cheaper, but it will also grow well, only it needs more attention ...
Interestingly, in the north of the Astrakhan region, local residents keep pigs on free grazing. Animals come home only to spend the night, and even then not always. Some pigs give birth to cubs in the forest, and then, when they get stronger, take them home. Among them are pink, black and striped little pigs. The mother pig is constantly digging in the ground, looking for food, which she needs a lot, so that the piglets have enough milk. At the same time, the piglets must learn to forage for their own food. Mom is a living example for them.
In late autumn, when the first frosts hit and the ground is covered with snow, young pigs rush into the forest. They are attracted there not by acorns, but by the instinct of procreation.
In early spring, as soon as the sun warms up, the pigs appear - small, cute, but some of them are striped for some reason, this is because their father is a wild boar. And in wild pigs, children are always born striped. At the slightest danger, they freeze in the grass and become invisible, unlike their pink domestic counterparts. By the age of three months, the "savages" acquire their usual color, grow up, and they no longer need to hide in the grass. Fast legs and the ability to wade through dense thickets save them from trouble.
An offspring born from a wild boar can bring some difficulties to the farm. The "striped" ones have a strong digging reflex. They don't eat out of the tub like all normal pigs do, and they turn everything upside down in the pigsty. In addition, wild meat is more tough than domestic meat.
How to determine the weight of a pig? Pigs are recruited in different ways, depending on the season, breed and diet. An important factor is the health of the animal: if the pigs are born weak, there is no need to expect rapid growth from them. Only greasy breeds can gain lethal weight. The indicator of mass is determined by two parameters, which are measured several times a year. It makes no sense to measure legs in pot-bellied breeds, but for dwarf breeds this indicator is also important.
For measurements, use a regular tape measure. First of all, the farmer measures the length of the pig's torso, and then the circumference of its chest. After measurements, the parameters are entered into a table, and the average animal indicator is calculated. The breed determines the rate of growth of young stock.
For the calculation, use a table that can be found on the Internet or in special literature. So the weight of a pig is determined by age and body parameters:
Measurements of the body begin from the head (from the part where the back of the head is located on the animal). You need to measure the entire body to the tail. The length of the body changes with age, so measurements are taken every month, before the animal is one year old. All measurements are taken from the head. The girth of the body follows the line of the heart. In a home farm, weight gain is slower. The optimal meat yield from one individual is calculated by the size of the piglet.
Young cattle table
Buying young animals also does not do without taking into account the weight gain, the weight of the piglet relative to age can be calculated how well it was fed and what kind of care was taken. This accounting will avoid deception. For young stock at 4, 6 or 7 months, special calculations are allocated, which take into account a slight increase. But you need to remember that the weight of a farm pig according to the table may vary, depending on the breed, and the calculations will be slightly inaccurate.
|Term in weeks||At the beginning of the period, kg||General||By the end of the period, kg|
Each kg a small pig gains over a long period. For further calculation, the small boar should stand calmly and move less during measurements.
Set by age helps to keep track of a large farm, in which there are many young animals.
Do you need to pick the leaves?
When carrying out pinching, you can also cut off some of the foliage on the cucumbers. Removing excess leaves is necessary to improve air and light access, prevent plantings from thickening and prevent diseases.
In this case, you cannot pick off all the leaves at once. There is a certain scheme that must be followed.
The whole cucumber bush is divided into 4 parts:
- Base. All inflorescences, ovaries and leaves that lie on the ground, turn yellow or dry are removed.
- 1 m from the root (about 4 true leaves). Waste flowers are removed. A few leaves (4-6 pieces) and the same amount of cucumbers remain.
- The next 50 cm. All leaves are left on one half of the shoots. On the other, half of the foliage is removed.
- Top. From the end of the lash, 4 leaves are counted and trimmed.
Such a scheme of cutting leaves provides good ventilation and uniform illumination of the entire plant, stimulates the formation of fruits on untouched lashes.