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Why does radish go into the tops or holes appear on the leaves: solving problems when growing a vegetable

Why does radish go into the tops or holes appear on the leaves: solving problems when growing a vegetable


Radish can be called the most common vegetable in summer cottages. After all, its cultivation is not difficult, except that protection is required from a cruciferous flea. Otherwise, everything is simple: planted, watered, in three weeks the harvest of juicy, vitamin fruits is ready. But recently, many gardeners have complained that they do not succeed in a good radish: it turns yellow, then it tastes bitter, then it does not tie any fruit at all. Let's figure out why there are problems with obtaining a high-quality radish harvest, how to properly care for this simple, but at the same time very mysterious crop.

What radishes need for good growth and development

Radishes can grow anywhere: at home, in the garden, in a greenhouse or in a greenhouse. There is even an experience of growing culture in space - it grew on the International Space Station. Judging by the prevalence and popularity of this plant, it has no special claims, but you need to know that the proper level of yield can be obtained if certain conditions are met.

Soil for radish

The vegetable grows well on fertile, breathable sandy loam or loamy soil. It is important to determine the level of its acidity. When radish is planted on alkaline soil, it will develop poorly, turn yellow, and if the soil is too acidic, then many nutrients will go into a state in which the radish will not be able to assimilate them. If last year on the site where you plan to plant radishes, beets grew, then they can act as an excellent indicator of acidity:

  • if the beet leaves had a pronounced red tint, then the acidity of the soil is increased;
  • green leaves of a culture with red veins signal a slightly acidic soil reaction;
  • rich green leaves and red petioles indicate the neutrality of the soil.

It is easy to determine the acidity of the soil with ordinary vinegar. To do this, take a teaspoon of earth and sprinkle with a small amount of acetic acid. Foaming as a result of the reaction will tell you about the acidity of the soil:

  • a lot of foam has formed - this is a reaction of an alkaline soil;
  • there is little foam - the soil has a neutral reaction;

    With neutral soil acidity, a reaction with vinegar is observed, but a little foam is formed

  • there was no foam at all - the soil was acidified.

    Acidic soil does not react to the addition of vinegar

In the case of increased acidity, lime or dolomite flour is added to the soil during digging at the rate of 300 g / sq. m. To improve the fertility and structure of the soil, peat, humus, phosphorus and potash fertilizers are added to it. The application rate per 1 sq. M may be as follows:

  • 40 g superphosphate;
  • 15 g of potassium salt;
  • 10 kg of humus.

Fresh manure is contraindicated for radishes, as it provokes a rapid growth of green mass to the detriment of fruit development.

Illumination and planting density

Radishes should not be planted with daylight hours above twelve hours. The optimal time for sowing a crop is early spring or late summer. The rest of the time, the radish will grow, but the root crop will not yield. The area for planting a vegetable should be well lit. In shaded areas, there is a great possibility that the radish will go into the tops.

It is important to monitor the thickening of the plantings. The distance between the plants should be at least 2 cm, otherwise large radishes will not grow - the seedlings will not have enough nutrients, moisture and space.

In order not to waste precious spring time on thinning radishes, especially since during this procedure, the delicate roots of the plant are most often damaged, you can in advance, even in winter, stick the crop seeds on strips of blotting, newsprint or toilet paper:

  1. A strip of paper at regular intervals is smeared with a paste of boiled wheat flour, potato starch.
  2. Using a toothpick or a pointed match, a radish seed is placed on a drop of glue.

    It is recommended to stick radish seeds at a distance of 4-5 cm from each other

  3. The strip can be rolled into a small roll for easy storage.

In the spring, all that remains is to lay the strip in the furrow and cover it with earth.

The nuances of care

Not only thinning, but also weeding, loosening of the soil in the garden with radishes must be done carefully, trying not to damage the roots of the plant. Otherwise, it can go to the arrow.

Thinning of the culture is recommended not by pulling out excess plants, but by pinching.

If you do not have the opportunity to regularly water the radish, then it is better not to plant it at all. With a lack of moisture, the root crop may not tie, shoot an arrow, and if it grows, it will be fibrous, tough or bitter. Water the radish abundantly every two days. To avoid moisture loss, the bed can be mulched with sawdust, cut grass.

The biggest problem for radish is its main enemy - the cruciferous flea, which can destroy seedlings in just a day. Therefore, immediately after planting, it is necessary to take measures to protect the plant from this pest: dust the beds with ash, cover with moisture and air permeable material and do not remove it until the leaves of the plant coarsen and become unattractive to insects.

The cruciferous flea is a small insect that parasitizes cruciferous plants

Another important nuance of obtaining a high-quality radish harvest is timely harvesting. Root crops are harvested as they grow larger. If you overexpose the crop in the garden, the radish will lose its juiciness, voids will begin to form inside the root crop, it will coarsen.

Subject to the rules of agricultural technology, it is quite easy to get a harvest of a tasty, juicy vegetable already at the end of spring, which opens the season of summer abundance.

The basic rules for caring for radishes are quite simple, but it is their non-observance that leads to problems with growing vegetables.

Video: tricks and subtleties of growing radishes

Possible problems when growing radish and ways to solve them

We love radishes because planting and caring for them is easy. Even a novice gardener can easily plant and grow this vegetable if he has the necessary knowledge about the peculiarities of growing a crop and pays at least a minimum of attention to it. The main thing to remember is that it is easier to prevent any problem than to deal with it later.

Table: problems that can arise in the process of growing radishes

Photo gallery: problems with growing radishes

If you accept the conditions of the radish, are ready to water it systematically, not to give it undue concern, to provide the necessary supply of nutrients, that is, to show a little attention and care for the culture, then as a result you will get an early and high-quality harvest of healthy, vitamin and juicy radishes.

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My name is Ludmila. Higher education, graduated from the Minsk Institute of Culture. I live in Belarus.

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N. Kurdyumov - Smart vegetable garden in detail

Nikolay Kurdyumov Smart city in children 2nd edition, revised and enlarged For the kindly given opportunity to publish this book, the author thanks everyone who can read. I stole most of the epigraphs from Andrei Knyshev, for which he. Show more

Nikolay Kurdyumov Smart city in children 2nd edition, revised and enlarged For the kindly given opportunity to publish this book, the author thanks everyone who can read. I stole most of the epigraphs from Andrey Knyshev, for which I am very grateful to him. Instead of a preface. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 What is this book about? ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 How to read this book. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... Hide


Problems when growing radishes: why the radish goes into the tops, does not grow, cracks, holes appear on the leaves, what to do with it

THANKS TO EVERYONE WHO CAN READ

I STEALED MOST OF THE EPIGRAPHS FROM ANDREY KNYSHEV, FOR WHAT TO HIM

There are few good books. Hopefully, with the advent of this one, there will be even fewer of them.

May all and sundry grow stronger and prosper!

Those familiar with my past creations already know

about how to arrange a fruitful and beautiful garden, in which there is almost no place in the struggle and hard work, and time passes mainly for obtaining various pleasures, such as: creativity in the design of beds and the formation of plants and trees, the braiding of a herb lawn, invention and the device of all new tricks that allow you to do nothing, reasonable types of plant care with anticipation, admiring blooming flowers and newly-appeared design corners, as well as pouring fruits and greens of vegetables (practically - the main pleasure for which we keep the summer cottages), detachment from everyday problems, friendly barbecue and even such rarities as just messing around and sleeping in broad daylight with complete peace of mind. In other words, this book is also about SUCCESS. +

About five years ago, I made an epoch-making discovery for myself: success is not just a centner of vegetables and fruits. Success is to create a summer cottage that gives you constant pleasure. And vegetables, fruits, and a sea of ​​beauty, and all this to receive without stress and fatigue, without anxiety and routine, but with pleasure - this is success! The discovery of the essence of success turned my life into a new, much more grateful direction. Since then, I have been busy with constant invention, search and arrangement of my site towards an ideal state. Every year I change something, check it, compare it. Progress towards the goal is not quick, but noticeable. This makes life pleasant: after all, the essence of happiness lies precisely in this difference - albeit not much, but today is better, more successful than yesterday! I share this search with you. Precisely by search. I do not give ready-made instructions, but I offer directions with examples and experience. I do not pretend to be an integral technology - it is still far from it. I invite you to move together.

Unfortunately, "Smart Garden in Details" is richer and heavier than "Smart Garden". On the other hand, it is much fuller. There will be more specific techniques and methods, devices and recipes. There will be a general theory and applied "philosophy" - for those who are not yet familiar with it. Like Smart Garden in Detail, it’s better to read this book slowly, from time to time, like there are many small books. I will do my best to make the book fun. This is another discovery of mine: the more fun a book is, the easier it is to put it into practice.

Despite the abundance of material, the book is still primarily about how to minimize unproductive labor and add a bit of personal freedom to you. I myself am a big bummer. I take off my hat to hard work, but I am sure: this is not our way out - we are already working much more than is necessary. It's just that our work on earth is not effective enough. A real bummer, Bummer with a capital letter, does not lift a finger until

will figure out how to save himself from unnecessary work, and get more. What a useful quality, right?

Now let me introduce myself:

Sometimes I have a feeling of not unfounded narcissism.

I am Nikolai Kurdyumov, for friends and wife - Nick.My body recently celebrated its fortieth birthday, while I myself am no more than twenty-seven. In Timiryazevka, my wife Tatyana and I studied at the very beginning of the eighties and used to the fullest the opportunities available back then to travel through the mountains and rivers, take photographs, delve into theatrical and musical life, and never part with the guitar. Then three adorable kids appeared, and we got carried away by pedagogy and health systems. As teachers, we ended up in Azov, at the school of M.P.Schetinin. Since then we have been living here: the children finish school. And very successful! With shine. The son - with a silver one, the middle daughter - with a gold one. The youngest is in thought about this.

Having gone through the hopelessly unemployed perestroika period, I remembered that I had been taught to prune trees well. Later it suddenly turned out that it was necessary and in demand. Then it became clear that science, books and shops are a beautiful wishful thinking, and summer cottages are a reality very far from them. Finally, it turned out that the wildness of our dachas is not at all a necessary thing, although it is methodically created by science and culture. By the time I came across Ron Hubbard's + knowledge system - technologies for increasing abilities, solving problems and creating success. Eyes were opened to the gigantic difference between what we want, what we do and what we get as a result. This is how my profession arose - gardening "successology". Tanya and I are busy with its development: I work with large gardens, she - with small ones. Gardening is more my profession, and gardening is more of a hobby, since I only garden in my free time. My dream is to become a real gardener - in the old days these were people who could grow everything, from an orange to a radish. And now I am a popularizer. And I am very concerned that the book is intelligible, and you would understand everything exactly as I understand it myself. Even better. Therefore:

The conclusion is where you get tired of thinking.

1. The main reason why the text may seem incomprehensible is one incomprehensible word. One single word that you are confused or misinterpreted in context. You may not notice this and keep reading. But this is practically useless: after the missed word, an empty strip remains in the memory! And now, after reading half a page more, you suddenly feel that you are tired, reading is no longer interesting, the thread is lost and in general the author is too smart, and you are not too savvy in science. This situation is easy to fix. You need to go back in the text - to where everything was still clear and easy for you. It is somewhere here that an incomprehensible word will be found. When you find it, look at the end of the book.

All suspicious words that you may not know (I myself have learned them recently) or those in which I put my definite meaning, I put in the INTERPRETING DICTIONARY and marked with a "+". Look there often, and we will speak the same language.

2. Observe. Seeing somewhere mentioned in the book, be curious about how it was done and what happened. You can't cover everything in your garden. Use someone else's experience. It is many times more valuable than scientific texts.

3. Try it. On one piece, on one meter, arrange what you want to experience. Your experience is many times more valuable than someone else's.

4. If you have chosen something, give yourself time to learn it. Do not rush to be disappointed if it did not work out right away. Even Mittlider's technology, painted in steps and minutes, takes three to four years to master it masterfully. But mastering time is a pleasant time!

5. Please try not to take it literally. And don't base your beliefs on any one chapter. It turns out that some readers took out only one thing from the "Smart Garden": "Kurdyumov said - no need to dig! So I don't dig!" And what to do instead is very unusual, and therefore seems vanishingly unimportant. That's how it is! But this is what most of the book is devoted to.In addition, if someone succeeded, this does not mean that you can succeed by blindly copying what he did, but it does mean that you can learn to do the same. Please do not take it on faith, but take note!

And the last thing: good and valuable passages from past books will also fall into this one: many of them have not read past books. Regulars, please do not be offended. Repetition is the mother of learning, the mother-in-law of understanding and the grandmother of application.

BRIEF SUCCESS FOR A COTTAGE,

In the end, a person is left alone with himself in

fight with yourself for survival.

Do you want your happiness to be stable and reliable? It turns out that there is a way: happiness consists of success.

Success is when you yourself, without any luck, reducing randomness to zero, can get, create exactly what you want.

Success is a strictly individual thing. He is always yours, personal. Because it is the result of your actions. If you managed to help others, then this is your success in improving, strengthening your environment. If you "live for them" and try to solve all of their problems, you care about your success, but you deprive them of their right to your success. And they get used to living off someone else's success. And it weighs on them. And they won't be grateful to you. Because we are as satisfied with life as we can feel ourselves as the reason for our success.

Success always belongs to one person. Collective success is not one success divided by the number of participants. This is the sum of the individual, weighty successes of each. Together means everyone, otherwise there will be no "together". Our ideology tried to change this, and we are now disentangling the result - this time, in our own way.

Life is fundamentally a very prosperous thing. Therefore, successes, like malicious viruses, constantly appear here and there. It is thanks to the loners, the creators of success, that culture eventually develops! I already mentioned that I love collecting successes. For a thousand years, everyone did this, and they were sure that it could not be otherwise, and suddenly some eccentric did not believe, checked, thought, and - a blunder! - made an order of magnitude better! Examples of darkness. Long ago naturopaths learned to create health, that is, a state of invulnerability to disease. GS Shatalova has already accurately determined the parameters of a healthy organism - something that medicine has never done in principle. Bates created an effective technique for self-correction of vision. Back in the 1950s, Ron Hubbard created the science and technology that puts a person at the disposal of his entire mind, allowing him to learn how to solve individual problems and be the cause of his circumstances. Spouses Nikitin learned to bear, give birth and raise living, absolutely healthy and rapidly developing babies without the help of doctors. NA Berger takes children "without hearing" and teaches them to confidently play music and sight-read in any key within a year. R. Hubbard created, among other technologies of success, an ideal learning system in which the student's abilities do not matter, and the assessment is the same: "is able to successfully apply in practice." V. Levin created a system of familiarization with art, the result of which is a developed ability to perceive art and create.

The same is in agriculture. I. Mikhailov from St. Petersburg created a mini-farm cage in which rabbits do not get sick at all, grow twice as fast, their fur resembles sable - and this despite the fact that it is enough to approach the cage once a week.

V. Shcherbak from Krasnodar receives up to 220 kg of honey, several kilograms of pollen and two bee packages from each hive per season. Back in the last century, I. Ovsinsky, V. Williams, and in our time the agronomist V.P. Ushakov created a farming system that allows increasing the content of organic matter in the soil and constantly increasing yields. Japanese Khido Tero created EM - a preparation from beneficial microorganisms that quickly increases soil fertility, increases plant productivity two to three times, displaces pathogenic microflora, purifies water, and quickly composts organic matter. AND.Michurin learned to predictably influence the quality of plants and created a method for preserving the productivity of varieties - something that we still do not do. At the same time, N. Gaucher knew how to give trees any rational form, to manage the development of fruits and the quality of fruits. And our I. Ya. Nekrasov spud potatoes so that he gets twice as many tubers, and so - twice a year! And what about V. Fokin's plane cutter? A simple bracket is lighter than a hoe, and twice as fast and easier to work, and does 20 operations, replacing almost all gardening tools! These examples are endless. I am sure that many intelligent ways of life have been invented dozens of times, since the time of these. Why do we suffer to this day without using, not applying all this? For two reasons. Firstly, success is a new, unusual thing, and we do not like changes. In the call "Change for the better!" we usually hear the first word and not hear the second. Secondly, it's time for us to realize that success is never beneficial to the state. In any case - to our state. After all, his power is based on our helplessness, and his wealth is based on the fact that we constantly buy their help. So let's leave society alone and turn to our own, personal success! Let those, whose business is the power, get their profits, but no one bothers us to stop suffering losses! I want to share what I have learned about success. Perhaps the subject of success is the most practical one for life. Now this is definitely my sore subject: I write too seriously. Therefore, bring the funny yourself, looking at your life from the outside.

OR GENERAL FRAMEWORK FOR SUCCESS

For others, everyone can do it. But for yourself something good

to do - here real courage is needed!

This chapter is for those who like to get to the bottom of the matter.

In general, success consists of three main components: a) the intention to achieve something b) an accurate vision of the result +, that is, a clear understanding of what, in fact, you are trying to achieve and c) a certain independence from accepted norms and opinions, and often from accepted values.

INTENTION is when you have already decided to do something and are doing it. Not to be confused with desire. Desire is just an emotion, not fertilized by any decision. Our desires often conflict with intentions: desires are often there, but intentions are not. We kind of want something to appear with us, but without our participation. I have probably read a lot of fairy tales.

In general, the gradation is as follows. For most reasons, we have no desires either. To have a desire, you need to be curious, learn about something good, and even believe that this is possible. In our youth, we are still full of desires, and after forty we often lose this ability, which we regret all the time. For example, do you want to grow a Big Moon pumpkin? Not? This is because you haven't seen her yet. Orange, a meter in diameter, 300 kilos. If you see a photo, the desire will appear. And you will see alive - "light up so that you put out the light." And so, burning with desire, you can live for many more years. Because there is no intention. To create an intention for oneself is the lot of strong personalities, but in our country it often arises as a result of a sudden outbreak of faith in something, or as a result of a stormy meeting with the main creator of our active activity - Fried Hut. For example, I can convince you that the Big Moon pumpkin is a panacea for all ills (I would definitely do it if I were engaged in the trade in the seeds of this pumpkin), and you will believe me. Or the husband (wife) will threaten to go to another (mu) who grows these pumpkins. An intention may arise immediately, and you rush to look for seeds. It is good if we are forced to create or acquire something. It's worse when we are forced to lose. By losing our intentions (that is, goals), we lose ourselves.

Therefore, not all intentions lead to success. Aliens most often lead to someone else's success. And to yours - only yours, your own, taken by you for your pleasure.

Intention has one unique feature: it always comes true - unlike desires.Therefore, there is a direct meaning instead of making wishes, getting used to creating intentions. Little by little, slowly, but do at least something. I have an intention someday, say, next year, to grow the Big Moon pumpkin. Therefore, please: whoever has it, share the seeds!

THE VISION OF THE RESULT is the second part of success. If you just intend to "grow a pumpkin", you poke the seeds as usual, and it is unlikely that anything will work out. Here, my vegetable harvests are very far from record ones. This means that I have no intention of growing a record crop. But there is a real intention to reduce floor space and labor costs - and they do. And to grow really Big Moon, you need to see it in detail. It will occupy an area such and such (what? - we need to find out!), Will lie here (spread straw!), Healthy and intact (take action!), Should ripen by mid-July (arrange a film shelter!), Have a bright color (remove a dead peach so that the sun does not block the sun!), should weigh at least 250 kg (find and study the intricacies of agricultural technology for this variety!), almost no need for watering (pit, half a cube of nutritious humus plus thick straw mulch), etc. etc., etc. And this is already technology +.

LAW: the more detailed the result is seen, the greater the chances of getting it. Or: without seeing the result, you cannot create the technology for obtaining it. Or, more simply: it is impossible to get the result of unknown what. That is, it is possible, but you will get no one knows what. This is what we most often get by trying to live by blindly following what is accepted or authoritative.

Revered by all sisters of mercy Vera and Nadezhda, it seems to me, are by no means the indigenous inhabitants of our city of Happiness. For all of them, they have one remedy - promises. Seeing Knowledge and Intention from afar, Vera and Nadezhda avert their eyes and run across to the other side of the street. They know that they only calm us down, but serve those who control us - those who came up with what to believe in and what to hope for.

The third part of success is independence, or self-confidence.

“Always be your own counselor, have your intentions and make your own decisions,” is Hubbard's productive ethic. The only thing that can take away your success is the opinion of other people. If they are in the majority, it is called "moral norms."

Unfortunately, all of our beliefs are basically the opinions of others. From childhood we are taught to believe, but for some reason we are not taught to analyze our experience and base beliefs on our result. We are used to giving our successes at the mercy of someone we often don’t know about. This habit leads to a curious situation: for months, for years we do something that we are absolutely convinced of, we get the exact opposite, and we manage not to see it and even think that we have nothing to do with it! Relationships with loved ones, their health and abilities, our character, reactions and emotions, the state of our body, surrounding space, clientele, finances, mood - all these are the results of only our actions. Well, you can screw up on your husband (wife), children and the government and fall into the illusion that they are to blame. But you can't fancy a pumpkin anymore! Therefore, a vegetable garden is a very good model for training success. Here you understand faster: to want is one thing, to do is another, and to receive is absolutely the third.

So, if there is no clear understanding of the result, and the intention is weakened by a lack of independence, we become fluid. Flux is the opposite of a result. This is a fruitless process. This is when we, having left our success at the mercy of others - relatives, bosses, science, religion, politicians - we feel general spiritual comfort from the fact that everyone is equally lousy and that we can complain to each other about the outrageousness and fate-villain taking place around. The trick is that empathy + is most often more important to us than success. And this is the most serious obstacle on the path to happiness: happy, in my opinion, is not the one with whom they sympathize, but the one who does not need sympathy.

Let us summarize all of the above.Only what you are within yourself happens to you. There are intentions and aspirations - they happen. No, they don't. If you fulfill other people's intentions, then success is not created for yourself, but for someone else. To the point of offensive, I often see how people sacrifice their well-being, creating other people's success. These are unnecessary sacrifices, because success never requires sacrifices.

Success requires change. But what is happiness if not a feeling of constant change for the better, constant growth?

And most importantly, success can be learned. I did not say - it is necessary. Everyone decides for himself whether he needs success. But it's a fact: success is technology. And I will try to show you this with an example of a vegetable garden. Finally we got to him!

or Quasi-scientific reasoning about the meaning of cohabitation

Work is not a wolf, but a product of strength and distance.

How to measure the success of a summer resident? Let's try to derive a formula for success. From the garden we can get: a) products (kg) and b) pleasure from working with him and from his contemplation (arbitrary units of measurement). If we divide the received by the area, we get the efficiency of the site: kg є pleasure / sq. meter. Often this is limited to the gardener busy with growing food, and nothing else. Moreover, the majority of competent gardeners strive to increase the kilograms, increasing the area. This can lead to overwork. Since the efficiency of the site does not increase, and often, on the contrary, falls, the gardener loses interest and often refuses to give a summer residence altogether. I act differently: I strive to reduce the area and at the same time increase the yield.

And I suffer less from the garden than I enjoy. And I want to develop a vegetable garden!

However, efficiency is far from being a success. By creating it, you can overstrain, go around the world, poison yourself with poison, and earn sciatica. We must introduce the main thing into the formula: you. Everything should be attributed to your labor, time and money costs:

The success of the summer resident = the efficiency of the site

Experience shows: often the cost of labor and time is more expensive than money.

Experience shows: often the cost of labor and time is more expensive than money.

Experience also shows that the easier it is to increase the efficiency, the smaller the area it is done. But the main thing - do not forget to introduce yourself into the formula. After all, you create a vegetable garden for yourself. And "labor productivity" this time should be increased not to "increase gross receipts", but to facilitate the maintenance of the site. "Adapt the vegetable garden to your lifestyle" (A. Chadwick). Our economy did not take into account human interests. Perhaps this is one of the main reasons for its collapse. No formula will work if you have not introduced your well-being and freedom as the main meaning. This is the grain of truth for which this arithmetic joke was written.

The overwhelming majority of summer residents, however, are trying to exclude either the numerator or the denominator from our formula. The former hate swarming in the ground, are far from plants and only want to rest in the country. Let's call them romantics. The latter are ready to tap and water day and night: the family needs vegetables and fruits! At the same time, they often overwork and suffer, which they successfully use for complaints, proud contempt or nagging at loved ones who are prone to romanticism. Let's call them realists, or workaholics. Workaholism is a contagious disease that is easily transmitted through contacts, communication and feasts. Popular science literature on gardening of recent decades is especially contagious. Therefore romantics are in the minority. These are mainly husbands and children - women are more susceptible to workaholism. By the way, workaholism greatly reduces charm and attractiveness - this should be taken into account by both.

Typical situation: the wife is a workaholic, and the husband is a militant romantic. There seems to be no compromise. The dacha is covered with stumbling blocks, and apples of contention are ripening in the beds instead of cucumbers. She has a female dacha syndrome (WDS), he has a dacha wife syndrome (SZD). It often lasts for years, sometimes it gives rise to family conflicts.As an experienced summer cottage psychotherapist, I state that the main cause of these diseases is the lack of a common, correct understanding of the meaning of a summer cottage. The romantic compulsively pushes the garden away, the workaholic, in contrast to him, is obsessively tied to the garden. I offer you my own version of understanding the meaning of summer residence.

The dacha is our roommate. We are with our plants in a relationship of symbiosis - mutually beneficial cohabitation. We and the dacha are symbionts. Or, in other words, partners. And not every cohabitation is a partnership. Partnership is necessarily a mutual and equal increase in freedom and well-being of each other.

First, partners are carefully and thoughtfully selected. Need

Do you want these potatoes, or is it better to buy? Excellent partner -

a lawn of wild grasses, but for some reason it is ignored. And varieties and

types of vegetables? Plant everything or what you know how

grow. How much? Optimum, or do you have to distribute, or even bury? And so on (there will be a whole chapter about this).

Secondly, partnership is mutual understanding. And in order to understand plants, you need to communicate with them. Imagine that you are friends according to the instructions: you read, said, the answer is not important, what's next in the text? But this is how we grow plants: we do something according to the book and do not catch the answer, we do not look with all our eyes at how the plant reacts! We even manage to raise our kids: they are so different - according to the instructions. We do not regard them as partners. And the result is appropriate.

Symbiosis is giving each other the maximum. Observing a plant, we can understand what it needs, and it will surprise us with its return. Instead, we often fuss and diligently harm the plant, and our life together turns into mutual torment. So we live, with difficulty transferring each other. And we are looking for the reasons in the climate, acid rain and damn life.

The formula for a reasonable partnership: I am with you, so that I live better, and you are with me, so that you live better. The dacha is needed only for the creation of pleasures. + The harvest is needed for the pleasure of eating it, watching how it is poured, selling, experiencing peace of mind at the sight of rows of cans with twists, treating, feeding children and relatives. Flowers and lawns are needed for the pleasure of relaxing, admiring them, giving them, looking forward to what else will grow there, accepting enthusiasm for a beautiful summer cottage, etc. A smart summer cottage pleases both romance and a realist: the former designs "lazy" devices, creates recreation areas and lawn, the second grows vegetables and fruits. A smart vegetable garden allows you to do the dacha without stress and completely alone: ​​let the husband (wife) go about his business. But in fact, even the most inveterate romantics, seeing a smart dacha, exclaim: "Well, this is a completely different matter!" and they start making improvement plans.

Here's a graph that can help you better understand the level of your relationship with your garden. (Fig.)

Zone 1. The vegetable garden is your parasite. You work out of fear or anxiety. For this reason, most likely, your loved ones saw him in the coffin. You know too little what you are doing. You think that you need to work even more, but you have no strength. Probably, your gardening costs you and your loved ones much more expensive than the harvest. But you cannot imagine yourself without a vegetable garden. Way out: arrange a smart vegetable garden.

Zone 2. You are quite literate, but excessively diligent. A good harvest and satisfaction with your own hard work hide from you the fact that you can arrange a garden much more efficiently, and justify your claims to lazy relatives. Maybe we should move away from templates and give a fight to the extra effort?

Zone 3. The main thing is not the harvest, but the rest. Excellent! Take care of your lawn and perennial flowers and shrubs. And rest on your health.

Zone 4. Ideal condition. Success. Our goal. I met only in fragments. Respond! I will definitely describe your experience.

THE MAIN ABOUT PERMANENT CULTURE

Labor made man. Labor can go away.

As I began to "smarter" vegetable gardens and orchards, I soon discovered that there are already many systems and movements in the world that are developing the ideas of smart land use. The deepest among them stands out permanent + culture, which means a culture of cohabitation with wildlife, developing towards endless improvement of both nature and human health. The principles of smart land management are expressed by permaculators with such simplicity and clarity that we should all take them into account, or better - to apply them.

Schools still teach that natural communities are constantly struggling for existence. However, this is only an appearance. If you look deeper, it becomes clear that the basis of any ecosystem is mutual assistance, cohabitation, mutual feeding, and the mutual adaptation of its members to each other. ". In the language of botany, to which Darwin readily resorted, the word" struggle "does not mean the extermination of their own kind, but only self-defense, the victory of life over the hostile forces of dead nature." (K. A. Timiryazev, 1891)

In 1978, Australian Bill Molisson realized that we can and should cohabit with our plants and animals in the same way as it happens in nature. "Permaculture is primarily a system of organization. Its purpose is to use the organizing power of the human mind to replace muscular strength and energy from fossil fuels." (P. Whitefield). I add: both time and money spent. This is what we need! Use your mind. And then something we are too used to living in someone else's mind. The principles of permaculture farmers are great at stimulating the mental process. Judge for yourself.

1. Work is what you have to do because you did not arrange for it to be done on its own. Or partly by itself. For example, mulch + conserves moisture and structures the soil. Or an irrigation system: a container, a tap and hoses with holes dug into the beds. I covered the soil with cardboard, old rags - weeds do not grow. I set up a poultry house under mulberries and acacia - for half a year, feed pours on the heads of the chickens. This also includes solar water heaters and pumps, water mills and turbines, and in general all devices that, once assembled, work further without spending energy and money. This also includes the principles of the location of landings and objects: a reasonable location and layout can reduce labor costs by half or more.

2. Waste is something that you never thought of using. Weeds, sawdust, feces, kitchen waste, paper, wood shavings and any organic matter that can rot are future compost. Old rags, rugs, cardboard, plywood, chipboard and other sheet material - mulch for soil, paths and row spacings. Large quantities of containers and plastic bottles are used for irrigation, insect traps, microgreens and nurseries. Perhaps only synthetic rubbish has to be burned. Even glass and iron are good as concrete fillers.

3. Any need must be met from several sources. For example, water can be obtained from precipitation, accumulated in containers, and also protected under mulch and under compacted plantings; in addition, soil structured by roots and worms accumulates and absorbs four times more moisture from the air than structureless-plowed soil. Plant nutrition: mineral fertilizers, humus, compost, plant residues. Food for chickens: berry and seed trees, sorghum and corn on fences and in the form of curtains, insects and slugs in the garden (separated from the vegetable garden), forage grasses in the garden and in the corral, etc.

4. Each plant, animal, and device provides a variety of benefits. Of course, if possible. Plants can provide food, compost, medicines, and spices, be honey plants, repel pests and accumulate nitrogen (legumes). Moreover, structure the soil with roots. Trees can bear fruit, be a support for other plants, melliferous plants, fuel, a design element. Animals provide food, droppings and dung, and poultry can cleanse the garden of pests.The raised pool can be used for bathing, irrigation, water storage and design element. Fokin's flat cutter performs about 20 functions, replacing almost all garden tools. The list is endless as well.

5. Ease of work arrangement, zoning and division. "Vegetables will reward you for being visible right from your kitchen window." Indeed: the farther a plant is from us, the less interest in it. The garden should be placed close to the house and to the source of irrigation, and on the backs should be attributed what does not require frequent visits - trees, shrubs. It's the same in one garden bed: what requires daily touch is planted closer to the hands. How many kilometers are there from your kitchen to your garden? And how much labor and time does it take?

I discovered division for myself in practice, and I see: this is the basis of smart truck farming. All areas of cultivated, used soil should be separated from the rest of the area by a border. The rest of the earth then gets the opportunity to be gassed and decayed. The area to be cultivated suddenly becomes very small and yields are increasing. Labor costs are reduced by three times, the volume of irrigation is also reduced. The plot gets aesthetics. I have grass even in the inter-rows, and I'm wondering how to further reduce the area of ​​the ridges? There will be a chapter on this.

I seem to overdo it with philosophy. But now you are definitely imbued and understood what the book will be about. And if all this is not yours, you can immediately present it to your neighbor in the country. And we’ll go into the basics of smart farming in order to understand whether to dig, and if not, then what to do?

A TALE ABOUT LIKE LOVE

Something a little rational grain

Everything new is good, that is, forgotten in good faith

old. Or what is well hidden is not ours. And often - and ours.

How did it happen that our scientific farming system, together with

developing mechanization and chemicalization, invariably

symbolizing world progress and the triumph of science, for some hundred years under the guise of almost completely destroyed - and does not even think to restore! - all the fertile soils of the country, including the famous Russian chernozems? Meanwhile, nature, which has escaped the "improvement" of scientific thought, is engaged in the creation of soil fertility. In nature, soils are never depleted, although the plant mass is produced tens and hundreds of times more than in our best fields. And this - without any additional work, without the introduction of matter and energy from the outside!

Someone set us up pretty well, brothers. If we did everything as it should, the fertility of our soils - specifically in our gardens - would invariably grow, and the plants would delight with power and yields.

Reading books, we dig the earth all over the place, twice a year. We dig all of it, not bothering to notice that under the vegetables - no more than a third, well, a maximum of half of the plot, the rest is hard-working only to fight weeds, for overheating, compaction and drying, in order to water more and get your feet dirty in the rainy season ... And the plants, despite all the tricks, are weakened and sick. Admiring hard work, I continue to look for answers to the question: well, what are we doing wrong, so wrong that hard work is necessary ?!

The answers to this question were found, developed in detail and successfully applied in practice at the beginning of the century. And, I think, not only in Russia. Agronomist Ivan Evgenievich Ovsinsky created a no-till farming system, with the help of which he completely eliminated the problem of droughts (it turns out, this problem was created artificially!) And increased yields tenfold. In the 1920s, Academician Vasily R. Williams developed in detail the "agrobiological doctrine" on the restoration of soil fertility. He showed that in unstructured (constantly plowed or dug up) soil there are no conditions for plants to assimilate nutrition, and found that the structure of the soil is created precisely by the roots of plants.At the end of the last century, Pavel Andreevich Kostychev created the doctrine of the accumulation of humus (humus) in soils and showed that it is created by microorganisms from the remains of plant roots in the presence of a stable lumpy structure +. The list of smart farming authorities goes on and on. It is amazing how consistently and deeply their recommendations have been ignored by modern agronomic science, and especially by practice. Therefore, our dachas are in an unenviable condition. But we can change this situation! Therefore, here for your information "a brief historical sketch of reasonable soil science and agriculture" - a free presentation of the main ideas of the authors mentioned with my comments.

VERY BRIEF HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE

Stop repeating old mistakes! It's time to make new ones.

Beliefs, and scientific ones in particular, are prone to extremes and choleric impermanence. Basically, science "develops" in this way: forward - backward, up - down, like a pendulum. We think on the same plane: if not forward, then necessarily backward. If this is not true, then only the opposite seems to be true. Those who find the third, correct path are ignored. This kind of stupidity is very beneficial and even has its own philosophical basis. For example, the law of negation of negation. Or in a pre-war textbook of logic I find: "Of two statements, one is true, the other is not, there can be no third." Cool pearl? And we believe that our inability to think is the law of the world order!

Seeing that more humus soils are more fertile, scientists in Europe believed that plants feed on humus (humus).

But in 1840 Liebig publishes the work "Chemistry used in agriculture", where he points to the mineral basis of nutrition. The Academy of Sciences in Göttengen announces a research competition. With the help of potassium +, phosphorus +, nitrogen + and magnesium + salts, plants are grown on sand, and even in water. The humus theory has been crushed, Liebig is triumphant. The experiments of Grando allow him to declare that "the supply of potassium and phosphorus in the soil is a matter of the life of agriculture itself." An idol of mineral nutrition emerges. Fertilizer production begins. They are imported from Chile and the USA. Liebig finds that potassium and phosphorus are predominant in the lower soil layer. Thinking that the roots are mainly in the upper layer, farmers begin to plow deeply and turn the layer. The arable tool industry flourishes. It soon turns out, however, that the mineral water is often ineffective. Grando begins serious research and creates an organo-mineral theory. He finds that fertility depends on the ratio of mineral elements to humus content with its microbes. It is found that nitrogen, sulfur and other elements can accumulate and convert bacteria into a digestible form. Liebig fell, humus took its place. But what to do with the already developed industry of arable implements? And the billion dollar business of mineral tuk? And farmers, instead of creating organic mulch, try to plow the manure deeper and mix it with the soil. Without air, manure does not decompose for years, nitrification + does not take place, nutrition is not available to the roots, and they try to fix this by scattering fertilizers. Field cultivation is becoming an expensive pleasure. Ovsinsky, Kostychev,

Williams is trying to change the situation, but in vain.

After the revolution, two schools are engaged in plant nutrition in Russia: soil scientist and agriculture, academician V.R. Williams and agrochemist, academician D.N. Pryanishnikov. They argue violently. Williams argues that plants can only absorb nutrition in structured, rooted, airy and microbial soil, and offers a grass + farming system that restores soil structure and fertility. Agrochemists ignore the structure and microbes, advocating abundant and balanced mineral fertilization of the soil. Williams repeats bitterly: I am not against fertilizers, I only want to feed the plants, not the soil. The grass field has not been fully introduced. But we have overtaken the whole world in the production of fat! Result: the soil is completely unusable, agriculture has basically become unprofitable.And now, in our gardens, we continue to dig, loosen, feed the soil, ignoring the plants, and the manufacturers of equipment, chemicals and fertilizers continue to make their profits. As you can see, science did not keep in mind to make crop production cheap, and yields stable.

The further exposition of the basics of soil life and plant nutrition is very difficult to make very short and simple. If you are not very interested in this, just turn to the next chapter.

I. E. OVSINSKY'S NEW AGRICULTURE SYSTEM

"If we wanted to create a system that makes it difficult to extract nutrients from the soil, to the destruction of agriculture, then we would not need to work especially on this task: it would be enough to cite the advice of adherents of deep plowing, who resolved the issue of inaction of nutrients in the soil with the most thorough way ".

Dear gardeners! Looking soberly at wildlife and our fields, let's understand the fact: we do not create the fertility of our soils. We, with all our processing, loosening, watering and fertilizing, are constantly destroying it.

The fertility of the soil is created by living organisms. They have been successfully doing this for millions of years. Actually, soil is their product. Fertile soil is a "living sponge", a community of hundreds of species of living creatures that constantly recreate their home and adapt it to their further prosperity.

The main ones are plant roots. They penetrate the soil with millions of tubules and tubes, compress it and form a lumpy structure.

These tubules are filled with organic debris that feeds insects and bacteria. From above, the plants, dying off, cover the soil with a layer of organic matter, which feeds on microbes, insects and other living creatures. The main ones are earthworms, tearing up the soil with a system of passages and turning organic matter into a bacterial-humus concentrate - vermicompost. Thanks to a stable structure that has not been disturbed for centuries and mulch from organic residues, the soil actively breathes, exchanges gases with the atmosphere, actively absorbs moisture from warm air in an amount that is twice the amount of precipitation. The mulch maintains constant moisture and temperature. Under these conditions, bacteria actively work, converting nitrogen in the air into an assimilable nitrate form (nitrifiers). Active living creatures emit carbon dioxide. It sinks into the lower layers of the soil and, turning into carbon dioxide, dissolves minerals and releases potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, magnesium and other nutrients. In the presence of moisture through the capillaries in the structural soil, as well as along the roots of plants, the elements rise higher and nourish the surface roots.

Deep plowing (digging) destroys the channels, destroys the mulch cover layer. The soil stops breathing, sucking water from the air. After the rains, it becomes denser. Air is squeezed out of it. Carbon dioxide is not produced and minerals are not dissolved. In the airless conditions of structureless soil, bacteria begin to work, taking oxygen from chemical compounds (anaerobes +), and all nutrients pass into an indigestible form. The soil dries up quickly, despite loosening. Plants starve despite fertilization. Watering helps badly - structureless soil does not allow water to go deep. Plants are weakened, worn out, worn out by such care. Therefore, they are so painful and so suffer from pests. The above is the essence of fertility. I fired it out in one fell swoop, and I'll decipher it in more detail. But the main thing is clear: there is a vicious circle. Violating the life of the soil - bringing manure, digging three times, loosening daily, watering and fertilizing hourly, flavoring with the latest stimulants, observing lunar calendars, horoscopes and dream books, warming the soil in your hands, on your chest and even in your mouth! - you kill fertility. You kill trying to save him.

Ovsinsky's work, consigned to oblivion, was sought out and published in his journal Earthly Life (now Reasonable Agriculture) by Yuri Ivanovich Slashchinin, organizer of the informal society Narodny Experience - thanks to him!

ACTIVE PLANTS IDENTITY

Plants are incredibly sensitive to torture

to which man exposes them, and revenge him for them - with flowers and fruits.

We know from textbooks that everything a plant needs is the best conditions for growth. It seems - an axiom +. However, it often happens that in good conditions the plants do not want to bear fruit. Bread gives a lot of straw and little grain radishes, cucumbers, tomatoes on nutritious organic matter "twig into burdock", grapes grow a lot of fruitless lashes, trees suffer from sterile gigantism. And vice versa - root vegetables, onions, lettuce often "go into the arrow", bloom.

This "paradox" was solved by Ovsinsky. He treated the plant with true respect: he recognized in him a being gifted with self-knowledge, sensitivity and "active identity",

allowing each time to decide how to behave in order to better survive. Ivan Evgenievich's approach is a true partnership.

"It is necessary first of all to point out exactly where the clash between the plant's identity and the purpose of the owner can occur."

"Under favorable conditions, the plant does not at all strive to produce flowers, fruits and seeds. This happens because the formation of the fruit depletes the strength of the plant and often becomes the cause of its death. Therefore, growing in good conditions and healthy plants tend mainly to the development of vegetative + mass. plants that are in bad conditions, or whose existence is threatened, produce seeds in order to be transported in this way to better living conditions. " Indeed, even on the example of flowers, it is clear that here - either - or: by removing flowers and fruits, you can enhance the development of shoots and branches, and vice versa.

"Dissatisfaction with our situation, suffering - this is the reason why flowers bloom and produce fruits and seeds. We, convinced that nature smiles at us with flowering, should know that the cause of this smile is pain." As a result, the owner must use certain means that can make the plants bloom and bear fruit, because without this the best processing and fertilization will be useless. On the contrary, the plants cultivated not for the sake of seeds, gardeners try to educate in conditions the most favorable possible ".

So, in good conditions, plants grow wisely, and when life is threatened, they wisely bear fruit. It remains for us to use it wisely. Notice, it doesn’t say: “you need to create bad conditions”! You need to make you take revenge. We create such conditions that the plant has no strength to take revenge! The Japanese get an average of 120 kg of tomatoes per bush in greenhouses. That's what I understand - revenge!

In most cases, the soil contains a huge amount of nutrients. but nevertheless huge sums are spent on artificial fertilizers, and a whole literature is being created on soil fertilization.

The soil is simply crammed with food. However, the batteries are contained in it in an indigestible, undissolved or non-oxidized + state. But in nature it all dissolves! This means that it is possible to create a farming system that translates the inaccessible into the accessible. It was created by Ovsinsky. But back to the sources of plant nutrition.

The ATMOSPHERE with its sediments and dust is very similar to soil in composition. Structural soil receives nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water from the air, as well as nitrates +, ammonia +, methane +, hydrogen sulfide +, iodine, phosphorus and dust in an amount already sufficient for plants living without soil - lichens, orchids, bromeliads +.

MINERAL BASE - sand, clay and subsoil rocks - contains all the main elements: potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, sulfur, as well as trace elements: boron, iodine, zinc, aluminum, silicon, iron, manganese, cobalt, molybdenum and etc. in quantities tens and hundreds of times higher than the removal with the harvest. There is only nitrogen in the minerals, but its reserves in the structural soil are enormous. Here are the data of the experiments carried out by the classics of the science of that time - Degeren, Schlesing, Grando, Kolesov, Volny, etc. I am recalculating their data per hundred square meters.

NITROGEN is needed for a harvest of up to 1.5 kg per hundred square meters. Dew and precipitation give about 0.2 kg.On structureless ground, that's all. Structural soil covered with humus mulch has other sources:

1) The humus layer cools faster - twice as much dew. A trifle? 2) Under humus, the soil is always moist. Wet humus fixes twice, and wet loam - 20 times more nitrogen than dry ones. 3) What is not written about in the textbooks of agriculture: in the channels and cavities of the structural soil, underground dew precipitates during the day - twice as much water as precipitation. And with it - up to 0.6 kg of nitrogen. Enough already! 4) With an abundance of microorganisms, with sufficient moisture under the mulch, there is an active accumulation of nitrogen by microbes and active nitrification +, which give up to 15 kg of nitrogen per hundred square meters. And it is necessary - one and a half!

The plowed, structureless soil is devoid of these processes, and we pour in saltpeter + and urea +. Hai live and prosper the production of mineral fertilizers!

POTASSIUM needs about 1 kg per hundred square meters. In different soils of it

contains 3-19 kg. Our soils are among the richest.

PHOSPHORUS needs up to 0.5 kg per hundred square meters. In soils - 30-80 kg

CALCIUM is needed up to 2.5 kg per weave. In soils - 20-200 kg.

Other elements are also found in large quantities in soils. Their transition to the solution occurs under the action of acids: carbonic and humic, which are produced by microorganisms in the presence of moisture, air and organic matter.

Let's turn to Ovsinsky again:

"Obviously, they (adherents of plowing) think that nature did not know how to distribute food in the soil, gave an abundance of some substances and forgot about others, or gave in an indigestible form, as a result of which the mediation of professors and fertilizer manufacturers became necessary. They forget, that in the virgin steppes and forests, where man did not spoil the soil by plowing, nature even without fats produces such abundant vegetation that no fan of plowing is able to create, even if he used whole carts of fertilizers. and if they were best able to help the plants, then in this case, the adherents of plowing would be powerless in the fight against drought, or vice versa - the plowed soil gets too wet during frequent rains, which can completely ruin the crop. "

FOUR CONDITIONS OF FERTILITY

If the nutrients were in a form easily digestible by plants, then obtaining bountiful harvests would be an easy task. It would be enough to throw grain into the ground to get the desired harvest.

For Ivan Evgenievich, the task of obtaining a harvest was not difficult. He learned to create conditions under which food in the soil is both prepared and absorbed by plants. Here they are:

1. CONSTANT SUFFICIENT HUMIDITY.

2. SYSTEM OF AIR CAVITY AND CHANNELS RELATED TO THE ATMOSPHERE.

3. IN SUMMER THE SOIL SHOULD BE CONSTANTLY COLDER than AIR.

4. EXCESS OF CARBONIC ACID AND OTHER ORGANIC ACIDS.

Let's consider what all this is for and how it is achieved.

Ovsinsky: a) never plowed deeper than 5 cm and b) constantly kept this top layer in a state of looseness. The results were surprising: "In Bessarabia and in the southern districts of Podolsk province, where drought causes an awful lot of concern, I was always happy with the weather, field work never stopped, and my land was constantly so wet that it was possible to sculpt balls out of it.

Mulch, loose from the mass of crop residues, reliably protects the soil from the sun. It is clear. But our soil dries up even with constant loosening. The fact is that under the mulch, Ovsinsky's soil remained intact, permeated with a million tubules, while retaining the capillarity + and good thermal conductivity of the soil. It is under these conditions that atmospheric irrigation occurs - dew falls out on the walls of canals and voids, down to the deep layers of the subsoil.

The underground irrigation mechanism is simple. The hotter the air, the more it can contain water vapor. On colder surfaces, this water condenses, settles in drops. The soil "sweats" like a cold glass in the heat.On a summer day, already at a depth of 35 cm, the temperature difference is 12 ° C, which guarantees condensation. Structural soil constantly breathes, sucks in air due to the "pulsation" of the volume of roots, movements of living creatures and temperature fluctuations in the volume of the soil itself. Warm air, penetrating deeper and deeper, gives off more and more moisture. A cubic meter of air can contain up to 100 g of water and give half of it to the soil. "With rational tillage, such a mass of water is deposited in the soil that in the worst drought, there is dirt under the thin dry top layer."

"This daytime dew deposition is the rain that forms under our feet on the hottest days - of course, only with rational soil cultivation."

At night, the opposite is true: the upper layer cools down quickly, and warmer air rises from the depths. Having reached the cold mulch, it precipitates its dew in it, and the water again remains for the plants. This is how natural soil works as a water reservoir. In the shade of the forests, under the forest floor, so much of it gathers that the excess forms streams and rivers!

It is in a humid environment that microorganisms thrive, there is a powerful binding of nitrogen and nitrification - its conversion into assimilable nitrates. It is here that the living creatures release a lot of carbon dioxide, which is necessary for the dissolution of minerals. The roots have both moisture and nutrition in abundance.

All assimilable forms of nutrients are oxygen compounds. Humic acids in the presence of oxygen dissolve phosphates and other minerals ten times faster than carbonic acid. Nitrogen fixers, all soil animals, nitrifiers are aerobes, that is, oxygen-breathing organisms. All of the above is aerobic processes.

Already after Ovsinsky, in the 1920s and 1930s, V.R. Williams constantly pointed to the "antagonism of water and food in unstructured soil." The plowed soil quickly settles and shrinks after rains. Water completely squeezes air out of it. All aerobic processes are stopped. And then anaerobic bacteria begin to work: they do not breathe oxygen, but use it for nutrition - they take it away from chemical compounds. And all compounds pass into indigestible forms. When the soil, due to its dense capillarity, dries up and oxygen appears, then there is no longer the necessary moisture! And again, aerobic processes do not take place, and the plants are starving.

Only in structural and mulched soil is there simultaneously water and oxygen, and all aerobic processes go on powerfully. The structure can be preserved without plowing the soil deeper than 5 cm, and constantly loosening the upper thin layer. Or by covering the soil with a loose mulch layer: foliage, husk, straw, etc.

The canals left over from the roots play another important role. Using them, the roots of young plants easily and quickly, without encountering resistance, penetrate to a great depth, into the subsoil - up to 4 m, where they immediately "cling" to moisture and connect to a source of mineral nutrition. Our carefully cultivated arable layer is minuscule in comparison. Therefore, to create a structure, the most effective way is sideration +.

The loose, humus top layer a) is quickly heated by the sun, b) it cools down quickly at night, c) does not conduct heat well. In other words, the layer of mulch serves as a blanket, providing constant soil coolness and the fallout of daytime dew, and at night, protecting from the cold and condensing soil vapors in itself, tending upward.

But that's not all. Nitrifiers live in the topsoil. A thin humus layer, darker, quickly warms up in the spring and begins nitrification, supplying plants with nitrogen. At the same time, the lower layers warm up more slowly under its protection and better absorb air moisture. To enhance this, Ovsinsky harrowed the fields before winter. He pointed out that plowing before winter and freezing of the "sharp layer" only prevents spring nitrification. But plants need nitrogen mainly in spring and in the first half of summer!

Plants need carbon dioxide for photosynthesis +, and it is also needed in the soil to dissolve minerals. The more, the better. But it also inhibits nitrification - after all, nitrifiers breathe oxygen!

In arable soil, this task is insoluble. In the natural-structural, of course, it is solved. A lot of carbon dioxide is formed in the layer of humus: microbes "exhale". But since there are tubules, it flows down, like a heavier one,

to the subsoil, to your favorite minerals - to dissolve. And upstairs without interference

vigorous nitrification continues.

ABOUT SEEDING AND TOOLS OF OVSINSKY

These tools (everything that was then sold. - author). should have appeared in museums of antiquity along with the tarred stake of ancient peoples, but we, however, do not stop paying our labor money for them.

For the curious: Ovsinsky preferred English guns, and the German ones, famous all over the world, scolded them with sarcasm. But he also altered the English in his own way. I used only Ransom's three-blade plow, an equestrian weeder (flat cutter, "pruning weeds), a nine-legged extirpator (cultivator with pointed tines) and harrows. He plowed no deeper than 5 cm. Pololniki cut weeds and loosened the top layer. The cultivator adjusted the paws so that by cutting the top layer, they created a perfectly even “sole.” The seed drills were brought to mind so that the seeds lay on this sole evenly, not in heaps, but one at a time, with the required density. In special cases, very rarely, I used a roller.

Ivan Evgenievich considered all other tools to be "undoubtedly harmful fun", a waste of money.

Sowed in strips 30 cm wide, and the same amount between strips. In a strip of beets - two rows, beans - three, wheat - six rows. The most important thing is a perfectly flat surface under the mulch. It is always wet, and the seeds sprout without rain all at the same time. This never happens when plowing, and even more so when digging, and the seeds, being at different depths and in varying degrees of contact with the soil, germinate unevenly (figure.)

The ascended seed quickly and reliably clings to the capillary surface, which makes it possible to harrow the seedlings three times - in two days: Ovsinsky always waited for the plants to rise after the harrow. In the rain, he harrowed and more. So he kept the soil in a constant accumulation of moisture, and the crops quickly gained strength. The constant looseness of the mulch is the main rule of caring for the crops, and until the plants have shaded the soil, two or three passes are made by weeders. The same - after harvesting: on weedy fields - plows, on less weedy - cultivators, on weed-free harrows, after rains - harrows, and finally the last harrowing - in winter. And already in the fall, food for plants for the next year has been intensively prepared in the soil.

I would like to draw your attention to the basic law of soil cultivation, which Williams has repeatedly pointed out: the soil is cultivated only in a state of optimum moisture. Not wet, and not dry, but when the lump in the hand does not disintegrate, but does not stain the palm either. Kostychev points out that after the rain, by the time of loosening, the crust should dry out by 1.5-2.5 cm, but not more! In autumn and summer, plows should go immediately after the harvesting machines: the soil dries up in a day, and in the wind, in three hours. To cultivate dry or waterlogged soil means killing its fertility. How often do you adhere to this rule. And do you manage to loosen the surface layer immediately after any rain or watering? And if not, what is the point in such processing?

Having learned smart farming, Ovsinsky was full of optimism: "The old system of tillage makes it difficult to prepare food for plants. Formulas for processing and recipes for fertilizers have long become an anachronism (this is in 1899!), And the adherents of the old system, spoiling the land with their cultivation, are trying to disguise their mistake with fertilizer and liming. In this case, they act like a doctor who gives poison with one hand and an antidote with the other, claiming that this whole operation is useful for his patient. "

"Shallow, two-inch plowing, which guarantees weathering + the soil, especially when used, from time to time, a weeder, is precisely that mysterious figure who removed the terrible burden of drought from the exhausted shoulders of farmers. Now I not only calmly, but with some pleasure meet this terrible scourge of agriculture. Our plants will grow reliably and will grow without rain, nitrification and cooling of gases will occur in the most vigorous manner, and good weather only makes our work easier on the field, which often becomes an obstacle to rain. "

It's hard to believe it! We have a smart system that everyone can build on to create a smart vegetable garden. So I hear the question: why has this system not become universal ?! Why are we still digging and plowing to our own detriment?

... Loreal cream. Your skin will become softer and softer, until one day you are suddenly buried deep, deep.

The answer is offensively simple: because there are those to whom it is not even to the detriment of it. They control science and culture. In our case, the development of agriculture was determined by traders of agricultural machinery and fertilizers. They, our saviors, helped us fight the problems of both soil cultivation and plant nutrition. But the trick is this: to help solve problems, you must first create them. They created their own science and simply ignored the achievements of successful farmers. And their business flourished. And it still flourishes.

Only what is beneficial to someone happens. We live in a problem trading society. In this sense, our world looks very curious: someone constantly creates problems, scares others and offers help, and everyone obediently shells out. Believe it or not, almost all of the major problems are artificial. Medicine needs disease - and it creates them. Don't believe me? Then imagine that all of us were handed over to the doctors. Are we going to be healthy or sick? And if we are handed over to the police, who we will become. The military needs wars in order to live, and that's why they happen. Psychiatrists need madmen, and therefore our world is not getting any more reasonable. The press needs scandals and conflicts, and it inflates them as soon as it can, but it cannot - it makes them up. Systems of education and upbringing have long been created that make a child a full-fledged member of society from childhood, but what then should teachers and frightened parents do?

It is always cheaper to create science than to lose power and production. We are driven like a squirrel in a wheel: the "solution" of one problem creates others, and we pay, pay and pay. "After the hamburger, ice cream and chips (!), Don't forget the Deerol kids!" - as well as Mezim for the stomach, Galsten for the liver and Bittner's balm, after which you can again poison yourself with chips and buy medicines. And I wonder what the Healthy Hair Center is for? The "Center for fragrant armpits" will soon appear, not far from the "Center for Healing Vodka". Melling from participation and care, we no longer see beneficiaries behind the new "science". But, most importantly, we do not notice that it is we who are creating it for them!

It was profitable for someone in our country to pay not for quality, but for quantity. Not the result, but obediently served time. Not achievements in health, but sick leaves. Not success, but loyalty to science. Not "active identity", but faith in good helpers. So now we are disentangling all this. So we are sick.

And we dig our dachas, and we complain about the climate and the hard life. According to our faith, and is rewarded to us! Amen.

OR A METHOD FOR LOVERS TO GARDEN ON SOIL

Sooner or later all my reasons will fall

on well-prepared soil!

"And on what else can you grow gardening, if not on soil?" - some will ask after reading the title of the chapter. The answer is: on anything. On the sand. On expanded clay or rubble. On perlite +. On small peat cubes placed in a pipe or chute through which a nutrient solution flows. This system has been successfully tested in Adler, at an experimental station, and is called low-volume hydroponics. You can just in the water - hydroculture. You can even in the air, periodically wetting the roots with a solution - aerial culture. It is clear that all this is quite expensive to arrange. Finally, you can grow vegetables in stationary raised beds or in trenches filled with organic matter - compost, humus. It is cheap and fruitful, and most importantly - quite "lazy". This is how I garden.

In the world, the idea of ​​constantly increasing soil fertility and saving labor and money, the idea of ​​the gardener's independence from the industry have been developing and applied for a long time - from the beginning of the century.

All of them are based on a simple law: return more organic matter to the soil than it gave.And then she will give you even more. At the beginning of the century, a biodynamic management system was born in Germany, based on the art of making compost and humus. Biodynamists have learned to improve the health of plants, animals and humans in a closed cycle of metabolic waste products. In the 50s, organic, or restorative, agriculture spread rapidly in the United States. Robert Rodale, the chief consultant of the "organists", has developed and scientifically substantiated methods that make it possible to use, accumulate and save natural factors so fully - the sun, water, air and the properties of the plants themselves that it became possible to practically not attract energy, chemicals, fertilizers and irrigation from outside. water. In the 70s, permaculture emerged, already discussed earlier. In the late 70s in France and then in the USA, based on the experience of Allan Chadwick, BIMZ was developed - biointensive mini-farming: organic stationary beds using mulch. The book about BIMZ was written by John Jevons. It is necessary to mention also Dr. Mittlider (USA), who developed the optimal composition of nutrient mixtures and the most reasonable geometry of the arrangement of plants - narrow ridges. Bioland European Union has been researching the causes of disease and pest outbreaks, developing restorative farming practices for over forty years, and Bioland farmers have achieved good yields and plant health, creating a diverse and resilient ecosystem. In Japan, EM appeared and is spreading around the world - an artificial community of beneficial microbes that increase soil fertility and displace pathogenic microflora from the environment. Here A.M. Igonin created a technology for producing worm compost - in fact, a concentrate of microbes, humus and stimulants, and V.

P. Ushakov developed on the basis of biohumus a farming system based on the principle of "return more than take".

I am sure that I did not mention a tenth of the achievements. I am sure that by observing the plants, many of you can create your own intelligent plant growing yourself. To help you - the main methods of restoration agriculture, which I know about today.

Our sorrowful work will not be lost!

And everything will go to fertilizers.

Organics are the former bodies of plants and animals, as well as the bodies of microbes that decompose all this. Easier: for us organic matter is almost everything that can rot, form humus +. Qualitatively prepared by distillation, or compost, is a real "garden gold". It gives plants amazing power, good fertility, protects them from diseases - this has been proven in the most rigorous scientific way: in Europe and the USA, institutes are engaged in the study of compost. And I see this in my garden: vegetables grown on a compost heap by self-seeding overtake my beds in development for almost a month, and the plants there are twice as powerful - although I have organic matter in the beds. The conclusion suggests itself: you need to turn all the beds into compost heaps!

At the beginning of the century, humus was studied in detail by biodynamists in Germany. Believing in the "mind of molecules" and cosmic forces, they considered humus to be the quintessence of these forces. Their experiments are surprisingly beautiful and meticulous. They learned to influence the maturation of compost in a targeted manner with the help of herbal infusions. We established qualitative differences between different types of compost. They proved: what kind of food the animals have - this is the dung - the same will be the humus - the same will be the harvest. And they brought humus art to perfection.

For the "organist" humus is the basis of well-being. They are very kind to him. It is animated. And for good reason: humus is alive, in the most correct sense of the word. It is a community of microorganisms, insects and worms dedicated to the conscientious preparation of food and environment for our plants. Our roommates, symbionts. Helpers. Little paws. Look through the microscope: they are trying. They are our roommates just like plants and pets. Even more important! And you need to learn to communicate with them, as "organists" do: composting for them is a sacred rite. Microbes need three things: food, moisture, and oxygen.As a rule, there are no problems with food and moisture. And to give oxygen - you have to try: the speed of composting depends on it. In compost factories, where oxygen is forced into a wet, constantly stirred mixture, the compost matures in a day! We have nowhere to rush, but it is very important that the compost is of high quality: not only bad compost will not help, it can also kill plants. Let's get started making good compost.

1. WHAT CAN BE COMPOSTED?

Immediately, we note what should not be put in a pile. These are fats, lard, bones, synthetics, including plastics. Meat and dairy waste is bad only in that it attracts the animal brethren, especially rats, and can saturate the area with unwanted aromas. They can be put, buried in a pile, and in small quantities: they will rot faster, and there will be no problems.

Everything else is divided into "green" (rich in nitrogen) and "brown" (poor in nitrogen, but rich in fiber +). They behave differently in the heap and play different roles. Green materials rot with heat and often with an unpleasant odor, quickly. This is the "stove" of the heap, and the soil is a source of nitrogen nutrition. Brown ones preyut slowly, coolly, in the heap and in the soil, they mainly provide porosity, retain air and moisture - rippers. When rotting, they can even deplete the compost with nitrogen.

GREEN: manure, feces, bird droppings, kitchen waste, squeezes and waste of fruits and fruits, legume hay, green leaves, grass cuttings, tops, corn (greens), weeds and everything green, vegetable.

Manure is best strawy. The highest quality is horse. The worst thing is pork: it is sour and liquid. But you can also make excellent compost from it, if you layer it with dry straw, sawdust, husk, keep it until it ripens and lightly lime it before laying it in the ridges: a couple of kilograms of fluff per cubic meter.

Feces is an inexhaustible nutritious product of our life, "the fertilizing value of which is 8-10 times higher than that of manure. They are used mainly where the culture is so high that it requires enhanced fertilization" (People's Encyclopedia, 1912). They frighten us with helminths +, but I think this is also from the field of advertising: there are always disease-causing elements and helminth eggs in the soil, but we thoroughly wash the vegetables, clean and cook. My toilet is a bucket instead of a pit. Once a week I stir its contents with water in a boil, and after another week I pour it all on a pile, sprinkle it with ash and cover it with grass or husk. Plants show: this is what they need! And there is no waste.

It is better to insist bird droppings for liquid feeding. Put it in a heap - only if there is nowhere to put it. The most nutritious is pigeon.

Kitchen and fruit waste should be placed thinly and layered with brown materials - just like manure.

Hay is an excellent material, but it must be crushed layer by layer with ready-made humus or watered with an infusion of rotten straw, grass: give it to breed bacteria for faster decay. If the hay is dry, it should be moistened with water, kitchen waste, feces, etc.

Grass, leaves and other greens necessarily require drying, otherwise it becomes denser, remains without air and begins not to rot, but to sour, turning into a poisonous "silage". You can take fresh, but then it is stratified, like manure, with something dry brown.

BROWN: dry leaves, straw, chaff, seed husks, corn cobs, paper, sawdust, bark, and what remains after harvesting oyster mushrooms in bags.

If there are enough green materials, the brown ones simply sandwich them. They themselves rot slowly and absorb nitrogen at the same time to feed the cellulose-destroying bacteria. Therefore, if you are composting only brown, moisten the pile with a solution of urea (urea) at the rate of 1.5-2 kg per cubic meter of material. Then the compost will not be depleted in nitrogen.

2. HOW TO COMPOST ALL THIS?

Above all, don't dig compost pits. Water accumulates in them, mixing is almost impossible, it is difficult to get it, rotting does not go - there is little air.A pile is three walls made of any material, up to a meter high. Ideally, the floor is slatted: then the air will be sucked in from below, and the composting will be fast and of high quality. Good - the floor is hard, for example concrete: it is convenient to work. If it is earthen, then straw or sawdust is underlain. On concrete, such a litter is thicker - 20-30 cm.

The minimum volume of the heap is a cubic meter, otherwise it will dry quickly. Better in the shade, for the same reason. If the heap is in an open place, it should be covered from above: in winter and spring - with a film (it will rot faster in warmth), in summer - with something opaque (overheating - the bacteria will die). If the pile is not covered, the rains will wash out the nutrients in six months!

Composting can be cold - slow, or hot - fast. I mainly use cold.

COLD COMPOSTING - for the lazy. You just constantly put different materials on the pile: grass, manure, feces, pour out garbage cans, and sprinkle it all with straw, hay, husks, sawdust. Try to lay the weeds that have not yet been seeded, otherwise you will have to weed the beds once again. It is better not to put the tops of diseased plants (tomatoes burnt from late blight, cucumbers from peronospore) in a cold pile. If you dig the beds, the infection will be carried to the surface every time, and the spores are dangerous only in the air. I don’t dig the ridges, but only fill them with new compost on top, and then mulch on top, and I don’t pay special attention to diseased plants: little spores get to the surface, but I don’t have root rot, and they are hardly possible on compost.

If you throw a pile over once over the summer, the compost will be almost ready by autumn: you can put it on the beds and cover it with foil for the winter. If you throw it twice, it will be ready sooner. And if you stir every week, then composting can be finished in a month or two, and this is already HOT

COMPOSTING. In order not to kill themselves with a pitchfork, organists have invented all sorts of simple devices. For example, a large iron barrel, part of the wall at which can be opened, is fixed at the ends on the axis. Something like a concrete mixer: come up, turn it over - and you're done! For this we can use ordinary 200-liter iron barrels - they can be rolled right on the ground. You just need to make a removable cover, and at the ends there are holes for air. Liquids cannot be poured into such barrels, but material of normal moisture must be placed.

The finished compost becomes dark, almost black, more or less homogeneous, crumbly and smells pleasantly of forest floor.

1) Mix green and brown in approximately equal proportions.

2) Do not make the compost layer in the pile higher than 60-70 cm.

3) The looser and more airy the heap, the less intervention is required.

4) Cover the pile, keep the humidity normal.

5) It is better to mix than to sandwich: you do not have to interfere later.

6) Add a seed from ready-made humus: it will rot faster.

7) Dry fresh grass and layer brown.

8) Do not put in a heap: fat, bones, synthetics, twigs and thorny branches entirely. Bury meat and dairy products inside.

9) The finer the ingredients, the faster the composting.

To be honest, I don't follow all of these rules. I collect what I have and throw it twice in the summer. I cover it with foil. The compost turns out to be quite healthy and nutritious.

FRESH MANURE, mixed with straw or foliage and quenched with lime or ash, is excellent for filling up the trunks of young, weak trees, with a spade bayonet layer - this rehabilitates them indispensable for filling up currant and gooseberry bushes, strawberry spacing and especially rows of raspberries with the addition of lime is good for the lower layer of the garden bed for cabbage and cucumbers (the upper half-bayonet is mature humus). Very suitable for infusion in water, for feeding.

SEMI-ROTTED MANURE or COMPOST is used like fresh manure. In addition, I fill the beds with it in the fall, cover it with husk or film for the winter, and by the spring it reaches its condition. Film is better: I noticed that open beds lose a lot of nutrients during the winter.

READY COMPOST (MUSHROOM) is used instead of soil in all beds, flower beds, for filling up shrubs and trees, it is infused for liquid fertilizing, to obtain a seed for bacteria.

DIFFERENT ORGANIC MULCH will be discussed in a separate chapter.

LIQUID NASTOY is an excellent liquid fertilizer containing, in addition to nutrition, a lot of stimulants and bioactive substances. Manure or compost, as well as feces, are filled with water and, with periodic stirring, infused for two weeks.

For the last three days, the mixture should be allowed to settle. Ash (from half a bucket), rotten hay, grass can also be added to the barrel. The resulting infusion is used for watering. The compost is poured with 10 parts of water (1:10), manure and greens - 1:20, bird droppings - 1:40 - 1:50.

Now there are many drugs that stimulate growth and increase soil fertility. Humates, Epin, SILK, BIOSTIM, microbial culture of EM. All of them have an effect on soils when used correctly. However, I was convinced: the effect of good compost is much higher. Because, obviously, all these substances are always in the compost, and similar microbes are present in it. Therefore, without belittling the merits of our preparations and fertilizers, I still regard them as additional measures that should be applied as needed: when growing seedlings, for soaking seeds, or where there is not enough organic matter. And I stake on good compost or humus. I am sure: only then will we begin to get stable yields when we get used to working with organic matter and to the irrigation device.

I heard: "But where can I get it, organic matter?" Let's not dissemble. Look: you have much more scarce things. We have organic matter - everywhere, around, everything is overgrown with it, but it is wasted. As soon as you need it, you will find it. I find it. Someday our cities will be surrounded by a ring of compost factories. In the meantime, let's spin ourselves. Moreover, organic matter is also needed for mulch.

MULCH + AND OTHER BLANKETS FOR BEDS

Do I need to repeat: mulch - the natural covering of the soil with a loose layer or just material - is simply necessary here, in the south, because it protects the soil from the sun, keeps it from drying out, maintains a constant temperature and creates structure, allowing soil inhabitants to live in good conditions ... Without mulch, we - either every day in a hoe (which still helps a little), or dry out like in a frying pan. After all, pouring water on our bare loam is Sisyphean labor: firstly, a bucket poured per square meter soaks the soil by only 3-5 cm, and secondly, all this water flies out in half a day if it gets on the watered soil the sun. So I tried to find out more about mulch.

Mulch can be earthen, from various organic materials, from covering films and fabrics - transparent and opaque, breathable and non-breathable. Let's consider everything in order.

1) EARTH MULCH - a layer of lumps of soil that we constantly try to create by picking, cultivating, loosening after watering and rains. It really saves moisture. But it is very cunning: only until the first rain and in the presence of excessive diligence. It's like offering to cover the roof with paper and declaring that a good owner should immediately close it after any rain or wind. And we ourselves whip water from above from the hose - so that we can grab our favorite hoe as soon as possible. Well, that's okay - a matter of taste. But loosening can contribute to the awakening and sowing of spores of phytophthora +, peronospores + and other fungi - they hibernate on the soil!

2) ORGANIC MULCH. I will cite my experience, plus the scientific research of American organists, as well as the pre-war research of our vegetable growers.

STRAW is one of the materials available to us. It is laid in a layer of 10-15 cm, settles down to 4-6 cm.This mulch thickness is considered ideal, causing maximum beneficial effects. It is put in the aisles of strawberries: in translation from English, its name sounds like "straw berry". The best moisture keeper.

In summer, it cools the soil by reflecting the sun. One of the best weed suppressants.It does not allow strawberries to rot and get dirty, the fruits of tomatoes and cucumbers are sick. A potato littered with straw grows one and a half times better and is less affected by a beetle: in cool soil it wakes up later, and it is already difficult for it to get to the surface. This year, my potatoes under the straw cut are incomparably more powerful than the ones in the trenches. Under the straw, onions, garlic, perennials, roots left in the soil "sleep" perfectly well. Straw mulch is the most durable "blanket". By the way, in English a bed - "wed" - a bed.

SENO is less durable, it crushes weeds a little worse. But it is nutritious and quickly forms a healing layer of humus. Negative: It can be full of seeds. Therefore, I do not put it on the beds. I fill them with sod under melons, potato aisles, tree trunks and bushes. The rest of the advantages are the same as that of straw.

SAWDUST, CHOPPED WOOD, SMALL SHAVINGS are distinguished by the fact that they almost do not suppress weeds, although you can simply take a thicker layer. Only weathered, lying ones can be put on the beds, and it is better to first spill the soil with nitrogen fertilizer: an infusion of feces, manure, or urea - a handful on a bucket of water. Wood is very poor in nitrogen and rotting absorbs it. Although the experience of the Americans has shown that this does not lead to soil depletion, I do not risk it. It is better to sprinkle sawdust on flower beds, in aisles, chips on paths.

All the materials mentioned are light colored. They reflect the sun. Therefore, under thermophilic crops (tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, eggplants), they should be placed later, over the plants, when the soil has warmed up. On the contrary, cabbage, peas, potatoes should be covered earlier, immediately after planting. It is convenient to mulch over the first carpet of weeds: they die under the thick mulch.

This also includes chaff, rice husks - in terms of properties, they are similar to sawdust.

COMPOST and MUSHROOM - healing mulch. Organists have proven that compost protects vegetables from disease. A layer of 3-5 cm is enough.It retains spores in the soil that are ready to take off in spring, and its microbes actively suppress pathogens. Knowing that the compost quickly shrinks and is taken apart by worms, I put it thickly, up to 15 cm. If you put compost on a carpet of weeds, many of them will not come out.

SUNFLOWER HUSK does not crush weeds, but it stores moisture better than compost. Therefore, I mulch the compost on top with husks. Especially good is the husk that remains after growing oyster mushrooms. I sprinkle it on the beds and flower beds. I add it to the compost.

This also includes HERBAL CUTTING: it is nutritious, gives nitrogen to the soil, keeps moisture remarkably. It should be put thicker: when it dries, it greatly decreases in volume. The same can be said for the leaves.

These are dark mulches. They warm up well, and you can put them in the fall, and in the spring they can be planted directly in them.

Bark, needles, screening of expanded clay - things are less affordable. It is better with them to mulch paths and flower beds with perennials.

3) COVERING MULCH

Back in the 1920s Michurin wrote that the Americans were successfully covering plantations with "tar-soaked cardboard" (roofing paper). Before the war, such mulches were widely tested and used in production on many of our farms. In the textbooks of those years, mulches are referred to as a common, well-known care technique that has a great effect.

PAPER AND PAPERBOARD is a great way to cut weeds and retain moisture. I cover the space where pumpkins and melons are woven with cardboard. You can cover vegetables and potatoes. Correct use: the plants should be planted in small crosses cut with a knife, and the edges of the mulch should be dripped in. Otherwise, weeds will grow into the holes, and the soil will dry out. Newspapers should be overlapped, in 3-4 layers, kraft paper (cement bags) - in two layers, cardboard - in one layer. Do not be afraid of printing inks: they are not poisonous to plants.

BAG TEXTILES tolerably cut off weeds, but breathe and often let in light. Therefore, the soil underneath can dry out quickly. This means that frequent watering is required.Watering can be done directly over the material, and the jet will not erode and compact the soil.

BLACK FILM. The first reaction: "She's not breathing! The roots will suffocate!" Remember: soil only breathes when there is something to breathe: a structure of channels. If there is a structure, the soil will breathe intensively through the holes in which the plants grow. I was convinced: under the "non-breathable" films, the soil is structured, because they hold moisture well. They don't vaporize it at all. This is a big plus. But they do not turn into humus - this is a minus. This means that it is necessary to cover the soil already flavored with organic matter.

They are also afraid that the film gets very hot in the sun. Yes, but it doesn't harm the plants. By heating itself, the film does not heat the soil, since it does not transmit light and does not create a greenhouse + effect.

But a serious drawback is fragility: it disintegrates in a year. But grief is easy to help: heap on top of straw, sawdust, grass. The film will work much longer under mulch - several years.

RUBEROID is the same film, but more durable: it works for 3-4 years without mulch. It does not emit any fumes harmful to plants: tar is a natural substance. Put it up with powder.

You can mulch vegetables with a film and roofing felt, but this is hardly smart: after all, every year the mulch will have to be lifted and replaced with a new one. But strawberries are another matter. The plantation sits for three to four years. There is no need to watered, almost no watering - only in a drought. Water is poured directly from above, and it flows into the holes, and is evenly distributed under the mulch. The berry does not rot, dry and clean. The mustache does not take root. After the harvest, he cut it off, gave additional fertilizing, and that's all! The subtleties are as follows (see fig.).

Having prepared the bed and poured a good dose of compost (if any), roll out roofing material (film) on top. We carefully add the edges: if the mulch is not airtight, the soil under it will dry out quickly! I repeat: when planting seedlings, the main thing is not to tear holes. We cut a cross with a knife - the smaller the better. We make a hole with a thin peg and carefully stuff the seedlings with the same peg. You need to water once. It's good to pour a handful of humus on top: the weeds should not even suspect that there is light somewhere and you can get out somewhere! Therefore, the big holes will bring all the work almost down the drain.

If the plantation is large, level and fertilize the entire area at once, overlap several rolls and put boards or stones at the joints. You cannot walk on mulch - this is the general law of mulch, because it is needed to loosen the soil! And on the boards it is very convenient.

Remembering Ovsinsky, it is better to plant rows of strawberries every 30-40 cm, and in a row to press up to 15-20 cm.But that's another topic.

POLYETHYLENE FILM - non-breathable and transparent material.

It creates a greenhouse effect: it lets through heat (infrared) rays, but does not release them back. This means that it is not suitable as a summer mulch. But it is great for sheltering compost beds in the cold season: the compost continues to mature throughout the winter, and the nutrients are not washed away by rains. You can cover both the compost heap and the manure pile with foil: they will retain their nutritional value and rot faster.

There is such a procedure - solarization. A piece of soil is covered with a film and the edges are added dropwise. The volume of the "greenhouse" is small, and there is a wild heat. Over the summer, everything should be cooked. I don't think that's smart. First, both soil and microbes are welded. Secondly, many weeds, despite the heat, have time to give seeds. There will be a separate chapter on intelligent film shelters.

AGRIL, AGROTEX, SPONBOND and other nonwovens: transparent and breathable. On warm spring days, there is no such overheating under them as under the film - a plus. But the soil under them dries out quickly - a minus. True, you can water through them. But - not adult plants: rainwater irrigation contributes to the development of fungal diseases. This means that it is best to use these materials only for mulching crops, as well as for saving cucumbers and tomatoes from morning dew. For more serious shelters, they are too fragile, they are torn by the wind.Some of them are short-lived. For a year they begin to crumble in hands

Therefore, it is better to use them temporarily and carefully.

5) MULCH FOR CUTTING THE INTEGRAL AND SUPPRESSING WEEDS. One of the smartest techniques used by permaculture gardeners and organists. I successfully use it to create new beds.

In May, weeds poured with juice are trampled down, put: this is a gift for worms. If the soil is very poor, humus or unripe manure is scattered over the weeds, compost - a little, with a layer of 3-4 cm, fertilizer. Then paper is laid on the weeds with humus: newspapers - in 2-3 layers, magazines - in 2 layers. You can put packing cardboard. A layer of 10 centimeters of nutritious organic matter is poured directly onto the cardboard, and you can take unripe manure, unripe compost: there will be time to ripen. On top of this whole "cake" is covered with "whipped cream": straw, leaves, grass, a layer of 5-6 cm. Cardboard (paper) cuts off the weeds. The nutrient layer retains moisture and provides nourishment. Straw protects all this from the sun and birds.

In the first year, you cannot sow seeds here, so seedlings of large plants are planted: zucchini, pumpkins, melons, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, as well as potatoes. They are planted in a certain way. They tear up the straw and manure a little, pierce the paper with a shovel: the roots themselves will find their way down. Seedlings (tuber) are set in a hole and sprinkled around with earth or ready-made compost: it will protect the plant from acidic manure until it is overfilled. Watered, laid with straw "up to the ears". If it rains, no more watering is required. The next year, the mulch will settle, turn into compost, the soil will loosen, and you will get a weed-free garden. It remains to add humus annually and sow whatever you like.

We make new beds easy. We put a box of four boards right on the meadow sod. Let's say 1 by 4 m. Spread a couple of carts of manure right over the grass. We put paper, load compost or manure on top, then husk. In the first year, we plant cucumbers and tomatoes.

You can do it differently. Having fenced the garden bed, we dig holes in it, right in the weeds, fill it with organic matter and plant tomatoes. The seedlings are growing, and the weeds are rushing three times faster. When it has already given a good harvest, but has not yet crushed the seedlings, we trample it down, cover it with paper, and on top with a thick layer of mown grass, humus, husk or whatever is available. All summer we add here grass, weeds. There is little polishing. Water once a week, but abundantly.

On such a bed, you can put all kitchen waste along with grass and weeds all summer. The worms will breed in huge numbers and turn it all into vermicompost. So you can just "throw up" the fertility of the garden in a couple of years to almost the maximum. I think it's called the "Finnish garden". Well, if the Finns are so mulching the soil, then we, with our sun and our droughts, and God himself commanded!

Summary: The best mulch is organic. It should be dense enough to crush weeds, breathe well, and protect plants from disease, and provide nourishment. Such an ideal mulch is compost, and with the addition of nitrogen - straw, grass, husks. Conclusion: let them rot not in the fields and wastelands, but in your gardens!

THE MOST NATURAL SOIL CONVENIENT

... And in the spring, a thick comb of a sunflower

will immediately comb out the dirty linen from the head of your thoughts!

Life on our planet began with plants. They were the first to learn how to produce organic matter from the air and the sun. The first to go to land. They created animals. They created the soil. And they even created an atmosphere suitable for breathing.

Since its appearance on land, any plant has been constantly doing a great job of improving the soil: after all, this is the home of its children. By the roots, it creates a structure from the tubules and leaves organic matter in the tubules for microbes and worms. Shades the soil while conserving moisture. Strengthens the soil, preventing erosion and deflation. And when dying, he leaves a fraction of humus on the surface - he gives all of himself!

We can say that the life of a plant is a selfless service to the life of future plants, and therefore of all living things: the plant creates soil. It’s great that they blinked at us if we forgot about it and didn’t strive to use it!

We are taught: clean land is order. But in reality, especially here, in the south, bare soil is death. This is compaction, drying out, loss of structure, stupor + fertility. One of the commandments of a wise farmer: fear the bare earth! Be afraid to leave the earth without plants even for a day. Use every opportunity to structure and fertilize the soil with organic matter with the help of plants. We have time: early spring and autumn. Plants are simply wonderful: cereals, amaranths, sunflowers. Weeds - and those are good, their green carpet in the spring just needs to be pruned in time. The inventor of the hand-held flat-cutter V. V. Fokin uses everything that is: "You still have seeds of any crops, unnecessary, expired, - do not throw them away, sow more thickly on the vacated land." Root crops are generally a luxury: "Sow in July-August . Leave the crop with the tops in the winter. How much food will the inhabitants of the soil get when it rotted! "

SIDERATES are plants or a mixture of plants sown in order to structure the soil, enrich it with nitrogen or organic matter. Traditionally, they are wrapped. However, at the same time, the structural work of the roots goes down the drain, and mulch from the compost does not form on top. Keeping in mind the discoveries of Ovsinsky, it is better to just cut them at a depth of 2-3 cm with a flat cutter or a razor hoe (about them - later) and leave them in the garden. Weeds, of course, can be pulled out - in a mixed culture, in a dense garden, you cannot swing a hoe, but leaving them in the garden is a sacred thing. After all, what is it, in essence,

weeds, if not siderates, growing for our own benefit by themselves!

I use compost beds, I try to grow something from early spring to frost, and therefore I do not use green manure. I'll tell you about it from the words of V.V. Fokin, but in practice you will see everything else.

There is nothing complicated here. On the beds intended for thermophilic crops, we scatter the seeds thicker over the February or March "windows", rob the bed and wait. Before planting seedlings, you can already have a knee-deep green carpet. We cut it and leave it in the garden. If there is something - sprinkle on top, mulch. We plant the seedlings directly into the wilting "tops" of the green manure. If you have been mulching with organic matter for a long time, then you don't have to dig the garden at all. If your soil is dense, then it is enough to dig it up in the fall, and in the spring only cut the green manure with a hoe or flat cutter.

After harvesting potatoes, onions, carrots, garlic (that is, those crops that do not produce or occupy the garden before frost), it is best to sow a second crop: even in mid-July it is not too late to sow carrots, beets, cucumbers, cyclic salads, zucchini, radish, daikon and greens, and by the end of August - potatoes, lettuce, radishes, mustard leaves. But if after harvesting there is still a warm time, sow green manure right under the rake. If he managed to rise long before the cold weather, scatter a new portion of seeds right over the grown green manure, and all - under a hoe (razor, flat cutter). At the same time, new seeds will be planted. If there is no danger that the green manure will overgrow and stiffen so that it will be difficult to prune it (such as corn or sunflower, sorghum or millet), it can be left for the winter. In the spring, it will remain to loosen the garden.

Which plants are suitable for sideering?

In field cultivation - primarily perennial legumes: alfalfa, lupine, sainfoin, clover. Their roots are powerful and penetrate to a depth of more than four meters (Photo). These plants are richer in nitrogen than other herbs. Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria live on their roots. VR Williams, who developed the grass-field system, showed that leguminous grasses are especially active in creating a lumpy structure and channels in the soil.In his system, for three years out of eight, the field is occupied by a mixture of legumes and grasses and is used as fodder, while in the rest of the years the structure is maintained by reasonable cultivation. This allows you to dramatically change the properties of the soil: it begins to accumulate five times more water than the structureless one in it, the antagonism between moisture and nutrition disappears, the efficiency of fertilization increases, and the yield increases. Williams makes astonishing calculations. Since the moisture content of the "plowed" soil varies greatly from overabundance to deficiency, and at this time the food is not absorbed, then both watering and plant nutrition work only by 50%. Moreover, the probability of normal rainfall is also 50%. Yields for the first five-year plans are from 16 to 2 c / ha, which means that the average is 7 c / ha. At the maximum yield, labor productivity is less than half possible. But in fact, with an average yield, it is four times lower than the norm. And if you remember that half of the harvest does not even get it, then the efficiency on unstructured soil is not higher than 12%. And with an efficiency ceiling of 50%, all sectors serving agriculture begin to lose at least half of their production for nothing, twice as much fuel is burned as needed, the machine-building industry, the chemical industry produces half of it for nothing, and this means that all industries processing agricultural products receive raw materials at least double the price. And this means, emphasizes Vasily Robertovich in 1937 (!), That all citizens of the Union receive food and basic necessities at least twice the price. "All these points have not yet been touched upon by the study, and what prospects can this study reveal!" - he wrote in numerous articles. And he believed that it should not be so. Truly - the titan of scientific thought also had titanic naivety! Just imagine: everyone works twice as hard and buys at twice the price. Yes, our powers-that-be could only dream of this! In 1939, Williams was gone, and the grass fields were gone, and science began to build on the agricultural chemistry of Pryanishnikov, and we overtook everyone in the production of fertilizers, but did not even come close to developed countries in terms of agricultural production efficiency.

I allowed myself this digression because our gardens -

it is, more often than not, a small model of our country, devoid of intelligent agriculture.

But back to herbs. Despite their value, legumes are not suitable for us: they are perennial and form a strong stem that is difficult to kill with a hoe: they can grow from the roots if they have time to give seeds, this will complicate our life: clover, for example, is not easy to eradicate at a young age. The only possible way is to sow alfalfa (its seeds are more accessible than others) and prune it without allowing it to grow well. But in this case, we will get very little nitrogen. So leguminous green manure can be usefully applied by someone who is used to letting the whole earth under a walk-behind tractor and is not going to change his habits. A plowed dense grass stand of legumes is equated to a third, or even half of the dose of manure only in terms of the release of nutrients, and after all, a structure is also created!

Therefore, cereals are more suitable for us - any, except corn: too expensive and laborious. They are cold-resistant, quickly sprout and loosen the top layer of the soil.

If you have a place and a desire to grow quickly and a lot of organic matter, sow sunflower, corn, broom sorghum or sugar sorghum. These are the so-called C-4 plants. Their photosynthesis is one third more efficient than the rest, and therefore they quickly gain mass, and in this mass, there are also a lot of sugars. Half a hundred of dense "stalks" - and in the middle of summer you can lay compost.

You can use these plants as green manure, but you need to cut it quickly, not allowing it to grow above the knee, otherwise you will have to chop it with an ax.

Sunflower and corn, sown along the ridges and around the garden in the form of curtains +, are of great benefit. They protect the garden from wind and sun, create a good microclimate. Cucumbers among thickets of corn or sunflower bear fruit before frost.

Cruciferous plants are also suitable for green manure: mustard, rapeseed, rape, oil radish. In general, all vegetables, the seeds of which you are going to throw out, are good. In general, keep an eye on the plants. There is such a weed - purslane, or "fat woman". It can be eaten, it is especially tasty in pickled form. Do not tear small plants, wait until bigger ones grow: how much organic will you get! And there is a weed - stellate, or wood lice. By the way, you can also eat it in a salad. Appears just in the second half of summer, after weeding. Until it bloomed en masse, do not chop: it is a very fine ground cover plant, it protects moisture. And there is no need to bite: it dies, it is worth piling on top of humus or husks. So sideration is a creative business.

"The main task of the farmer is to make the land. The land must be given more than you take from it. The interest - and considerable - it will calculate by itself: to each according to his merits." (V.V. Fokin).

Here are the main rules for sideering. 1) Do not sow perennials and rhizome plants. 2) There is no need to re-grow green manure The more powerful the plant, the earlier you need to prune it. 3) This siderat is thick. 4) Spread the seeds before harvesting or before spring looting, so as not to waste special efforts on sideriding.

IMPORTANT SOIL DATA

From time immemorial, crop rotation has been the basis of truck farming. Its essence is that plants cannot be grown for several years in one place - the yield falls, growth decreases and soreness increases. And this is true for an ordinary arable crop, although in its regime we have and with the observance of crop rotation, the plants suffer considerably.

What are the reasons for this phenomenon? Most often it is associated with the accumulation of diseases in the soil. They also say that the depletion of the soil with nutrition is to blame: after all, plants require exactly those elements that have already been "eaten" by the same crops in previous years. They also prove that the roots secrete certain poisons characteristic of this particular type of plant, and their accumulation has a poisonous effect. What is the real reason for this "soil exhaustion" and what to do with it?

A strictly substantiated answer was found in the book of the genius winegrower-practitioner and scientist Lenz Moser. Faced with soil exhaustion, he was not too lazy to lay hundreds of field experiments and found out exactly the following. The cause of the weakening of plants is specific substances - inhibitors that strongly inhibit root growth. The roots themselves distinguish them. And the plant develops only when new roots are constantly leaving "from the affected area", mastering new volumes of soil. Plants of other species do not react to foreign inhibitors in any way, but varieties of the same species always and noticeably. If you rinse the soil with water, the inhibitors go into solution. If you water healthy plants on good soil with them, they wither before our eyes. When heated to 80 degrees, inhibitors are destroyed. They inhibit growth and development, REGARDLESS of the abundance of food, moisture and the use of pesticides against diseases. This is important: it means that you can save from soil fatigue only by replacing the soil or greatly changing its composition and properties.

And here organic matter plays a decisive role. And especially - in the form of sideration. Only by growing a powerful green mass for a couple of years and plowing it, Moser was able to completely rid the soil of fatigue.

The conclusion for us is obvious: we can completely avoid soil fatigue by annually replenishing the beds with compost and growing green manure before and after harvesting. But - an important nuance: inhibitors remain in the compost! If you fertilize, for example, potatoes with potato compost (no matter, tubers or tops!), It will only get worse. Compost, therefore, must live up to its name: in English, this word simply means "mix", "mixed from different parts".

Another thing is also obvious: it is not necessary to plant an apple tree in a pit from an uprooted apple tree, and a plum in a plum pit. And in the beds, you should try to grow plants of the same species in one place for no more than two years, and if there is no organic matter and siderates, you will have to change places every year.For organic beds, which will be discussed below, the issue of soil fatigue is practically not worth it.

Now let's get down to smart tools.

Something is always needed for something.

This chapter is simply an illustration of how the mind of things can be increased infinitely. No wonder Ovsinsky equated most of the branded weapons produced with the stake of ancient peoples. It was not for nothing that Williams indicated the exact conditions and types of tools for reasonable processing, but he considered the rest or used improperly as sabotage and a waste of money. And Vladimir Vasilyevich Fokin found a way to garden after a heart attack: he invented a flat cutter that does everything except, perhaps, spraying. We have good teachers. Now it's up to the students!

This idea was suggested to me by Valya Levichkin, a florist from Yablonovka. I did - and thanked our meeting. Try it yourself.

Many have "hand cultivators" bought at the end of the 80s lying around idle: on the handle there is a weeding apparatus, which has toothed loosening wheels in front, and a flat-cutting bracket with free play in the back. The cultivator has a noble goal. But it is suitable only for loose soils, and even there, with high humidity, grass is wound on wheels and the earth sticks. But the bracket there is really remarkable: the steel is what you need, and the backlash is optimal, and the corners are good, and the sharpening. Cut the wheels and you get a wonderful weeding razor, the possibilities of which are much wider.

They don't hit with a razor, they pull it. Easier - to yourself, after a little practice - and from yourself. At the same time, it neatly deepens by 1--3 cm, which is easy to regulate, cuts weeds, including quite adult ones, and forms an even mulching layer. Twice as effective as a hoe, and if the aisles are made a little wider than a razor - then three times: spent - and the aisle is clean.

Sharpening the blades is important: blunt ones work much worse.

Of course, if you try to cut an adult weeds, you have to sweat and often shake out the stuck grass. But the razor is not for the weeds. She so that he was not. And for the weeds, that ax on the handle, which we call the hoe, is intended.

Idea: you can improve the razor by attaching a regular wheel, say, from a baby carriage, instead of toothed wheels. Then she will cut and roll forward, which will greatly speed up the work.

He weeded calmly, unhurriedly and confidently - like the Colorado potato beetle.

Realizing that the shovel had already been ordered for him, Vladimir Vasilyevich did not give up. On the contrary! Invented a flat cutter that is easy to work with. Patented. Set up a release. Writes books. Give him, God, health!

Look: the same razor with one side removed. But the razor does two operations, and the flat cutter does twenty. It's a tricky machine. All bend angles are oblique, adjusted to the degree. Tool steel, of optimal thickness: so that it is light, and a perennial weed could be pulled out of the ground. Four different positions on the handle: change - two minutes, and the efficiency increases significantly. Have you tried mowing with a scythe that has the wrong corners? Therefore, a whole booklet is attached to the plane cutter about what it is for and how to work it.

With a flat cutter it is easy to loosen, mulch, form beds, make furrows and fill them, slit, weed, pick, mow, rake and drag grass and branches, chop up strawberry shoots and whiskers, grind, gouge, mix concrete, etc., etc. The fact speaks about the effectiveness of the tool: once, after an illness, Vladimir Vasilyevich and his wife processed almost half a hectare of a vegetable garden in two stripes and grew a good harvest. Over the past two years, the plane cutter has sold throughout Russia. Sold with us. It's a pity that our factories do not make it.

- Let's invent something old.

The figure shows a cultivator, or weeder. Drawings - from the "Encyclopedia of Russian Agriculture" (published by Devrien, 1902-1909).

In the encyclopedia of rowers there is a huge variety: both manual and horse-drawn, single-row and two-three-row. Then they were in every household.They processed all row crops with them: potatoes, cabbage, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, beets, carrots. The productivity of such machines is 10-12 times higher than a hoe. As you can see from the photo, this work was by no means a man's. And immediately before our eyes - the once living fields of our state farm. The usual landscape: among the lush green of weeds, in groups and one by one, our grandmothers with "boots". And all the free time is in their own gardens: they are drowning, no matter how you look, and there is no time to rest. So in the photo - just a miracle of progress!

I think, if you really want to, you can find such cars somewhere. I met a similar unit of Ukrainian production in the 60s at the turner-craftsman Vladimir Petrovich Oleinik. He praised the car in every way and was very surprised that it was not an invention of our days. Then I realized: I need to talk about it.

The planets cultivators and the like died out somehow immediately in the late forties, after the war. I wonder why the smartest things disappear from our everyday life.

The cultivator could be improved by greatly lightening the frame, simplifying the adjustments, refining and sharply sharpening the working bodies. This was done, and successfully, by retired Fedor Sergeevich Leontiev. But his model remained unclaimed. I also see that a very light walk-behind tractor can be adapted to the aisles, attach weed paws and give it a cruising speed of 4-5 km / h. Such a machine would do for us. After all, digging up is just the beginning. But then you have to weed and loosen with a hoe all summer!

A tractor raced across the field, smelling slightly.

In fact, these are cultivators who have suffered severe degradation. They are not only oversimplified, but oversimplified with the loss of many valuable qualities. But it's still better than a hoe, many times over. Sometimes they are on sale, but rarely. Apparently, having got used to "sap", we are little interested in them.

I have met such cars several times in the dachas. Their owners differ in facial expression: they do not depend on the garden. Especially women: "Why? I got up, drove for an hour, weeded everything and - rest!"

The main thing is to adjust the weeder for yourself so that it does not burrow too much and cut it without much effort. Well, do not forget to sometimes lubricate the wheel and sharpen the paw. You can improve the handles: lengthen a little and make something like a transverse strap so that part of the effort is created by the chest. But this is already a matter of taste.

I tried to interest some manufacturers with the mentioned guns, but so far in vain.

And finally, good news: a farmer from near Rostov, Yuri Tishchenko, has set up the production of elegant and comfortable two-wheeled rowers, to which a set of removable working bodies is attached (picture). Orders for cultivators are taken by the editor of "Reasonable Agriculture" Yu. I. Slashchinin (his address is at the end of the book).

All of the above farming techniques improve the soil gradually and constantly. And if you want to immediately quickly and significantly increase the fertility of the beds, and the amount of organic matter is limited? The double digging technique used by biointensive gardeners (John Jevons) is suitable here.

This work is done once and has an effect for 4-5 years. Double digging is applicable only for individual ridges and boxes (that is, ridges lined with boards) of different widths - from 1.2 to 0.5 m, since it is very laborious.

The point is to make the soil structurally lumpy and mix it with compost to a depth of 60 cm - two bayonets.

This is done in different ways. Here is the simplest one.

You need to dig when the soil moisture is optimal: the soil is moist, but does not stick to the shovel. It is better to use a shovel with a quadrangular, trench. First, outline the bed and free it from debris and weeds. Then draw a bayonet-wide transverse strip. You take out all the land of this strip - you get a trench with a depth and width of a bayonet (figure). Use the soil from the trench in another place: it will not return to the garden bed - after the excavation, the volume of soil will increase, the garden bed will turn out to be swollen, raised.

The first trench is the start of work.At the bottom we pour a bucket of compost (semi-ripe manure, humus is suitable) and a handful of complex fertilizer (better - Mittlider mixtures No. 1 and No. 2 - see the chapter on nutrition). We distribute all this in an even layer. And now we are digging the bottom of the trench in small portions, achieving sealing and mixing of compost and fertilizers with the soil. The bottom is ready. Now you can shift the next top strip of the bed onto it (picture). But it also needs to be fertilized. We'll sprinkle the same bucket of organic matter and fertilizers on it. Throw in small portions to the bottom of the first trench and raise the slide as steeply as possible. It turned out the second trench. Now - all over again. To the bottom - organic matter and fertilizers, we dig the bottom. We fertilize the next upper strip, transfer it to the bottom of the second trench. It turned out the third trench. And so on.

Of course, on our loams, the creation of such a bed is a real construction work: seven sweats will do. But vegetables in the same year will give out the maximum, and for the next few years it will be possible only to loosen the top 5 cm and add a little compost.

For deep loosening of such beds without turning the layer, a SHAPE RIPPER is used (according to FS Leontiev - a wide forked digger). The depth of its capture is 45 cm. It is suitable only for structural, loose or organic soils. The layers are simply shifted, saturating the soil with air. The working width is 70 cm. For our soils, it is better to cut the tines by half. Then the digger is suitable for loosening the developed ridges, the width of which is equal to the width of the digger. Never seen on sale.

SUMMARY OF SMART FARMING

Let's achieve a reasonable progress of civilization in a single vegetable garden!

Summarize. Soil is the cohabitation of roots, as well as terrestrial parts of plants, insects, worms and microorganisms. All of them have adapted and adapted the soil to themselves in such a way as to survive and continue indefinitely. Plants supply everyone with organic matter. Everyone eats it, emits carbon dioxide, fixes nitrogen in the air and nourishes plants, stimulates them to grow, and protects them from diseases. And so - for millions of years.

On a hundred square meters of fertile soil - 200 or more kilograms of microbes. They live from half an hour to several hours.

They multiply with great speed: they divide in half every half hour. And they constantly release the products of their tiny life into the soil: vitamins, growth stimulants, antibiotics, nutrients. Bacteria are eaten by ciliates and other little things, those - to someone larger, these are eaten by insects and animals. And when they die, bacteria again get it, and everything taken from the plants gets to the plants.

"A man can make a kilogram of nails from a kilogram of iron. And Nature, from a kilogram of seeds, without labor, creates a centner of production," notes Yu. I. Slashchinin and shares his discovery: the cunning Marx, having devoted "Capital" to the proof of the labor nature of surplus value, at the end of the fourth volume explains that the real source of absolute surplus value is nature, that is, the photosynthesis of plants.

Robert Rodale emphasized that the rate of solar energy use is the useful weight of plants per hectare or per square meter. Not one definite harvest, but - in just a year. And the ancient Sumerians, Persians, Indians and Indians measured the harvest in SAMA. CAM is how many times more you have harvested than you have sown. Their bread yields reached CAM-300.

Our agriculture, fertilizers, chemical protection and technology - all this devalues ​​the "surplus value of nature", leads to higher prices for products and, as a result, to a deterioration in life. I'm sure we can try to fix this situation on our own sites.

These are the principles of reasonable farming, proposed to us by those who have managed to use nature more fully and thereby help themselves and those around them live.

1. DO NOT DIG IN SOIL UNLESS NECESSARY. To loosen and create a structure, use organic waste, mulch, compost, green manure.

2. DO NOT ROOM DEEPER THAN 5 CM.Do not spoil the structure, but create a loose layer under which atmospheric irrigation would take place.

3. LIKE ITS ANIMALS, FEED AND COLUMN SOIL LIFE. Give more organic matter to the soil than is taken from it. Compost right in your garden beds. Use whatever can rot.

4. DO NOT LEAVE THE SOIL FOR A LONG TIME. This siderat. Change the culture ahead of time: so that by the time one harvests, the other has already sprung up.

5. From me personally: THINK SEVEN TIMES BEFORE TRUSTING RECOMMENDATIONS RELATED TO INCREASING EMPLOYMENT OR COSTS. Nature has everything you need. We are simply not taught to use it.

And the next chapter is for those who, not needing large quantities of vegetables, want to minimize the amount of land they have to care for.

OR VEGETABLES IN VERY SMALL AREAS

The brevity of the garden is the sister of talent!

Gardening on very small, downright zero areas is my dream and my favorite topic. I confess: in "Smart Garden" I described smart beds more with feelings than skill and experience. Not everything is as perfect as you want, it turns out now. However, there are shifts: now I can replace a fair amount of populism with specific observations. And in the coming years, I intend to move even further - to an integral system with stable yields and low labor costs. This is an interesting matter, but not simple and not fast, therefore, like last time, I ask all like-minded people to contact me and share their experience.

Vegetables, especially greens and salads, are grown in the west on very small farms. This is something like our rural areas

- 30-50 ares. Farmers in the United States receive up to $ 1,500 in income from one hundred square meters. An hour of organic work can pay off $ 50. We calculated that the average summer resident's working hour is 10-20 cents: a tram ticket. Is it because we put seeds in the ground, hoping more at random?

Our soils are loams, most often plowed and structureless, and give out their potential only at optimal moisture, which is almost impossible to achieve in our hot climate. The villagers grow good vegetables, but at the cost of constant watering and loosening. This does not suit a summer resident. For me, my site is also a dacha: a rock-hard salt marsh, the bayonet of a shovel rests against the gley + layer, and there is no time to process it all the time, and there is no desire: all the same, if I get distracted a little, it will dry out and get wet in the rain. Therefore, I am learning to work with organics.

I have become firmly convinced that it is organic matter that can reveal all the possibilities of plants, saving time and energy. Only on good compost can you see and appreciate the qualities of Western varieties of vegetables: most of them are created for organic soil. If you do not have the strength and time, you have to understand: what is useless is harmful. If you spend efforts, but there is no return, you harm yourself: this time could be spent with greater benefit and pleasure. From the point of view of an organist, the soil is generally not suitable for vegetables - unless it is virgin chernozem provided with irrigation, which are almost gone now. A small area of ​​organic matter gives more than a large area of ​​soil. And the more nutritious the organic matter, the higher its effect. I am sure: we cannot get away from organic matter. It's just business: get used to harvesting and learn how to compost. And also to arrange stationary beds - once for many years. The compost containers, which I wrote about in Smart Garden, are productive, but it turns out that there are more practical and cheaper options. I will show everything that I know and try to date, from the more complex and expensive to the simplest and cheapest.

VEGETABLE CONTAINER: TWO YEARS LATER

... And if you are tired, filling the container, it is very convenient to lie down and relax right in it.

A vegetable container is a high bed, the walls of which are made of bricks, logs, beams, and stones. Width - about a meter, any length. Height - if possible, from 30-40 to 70-80 cm.Lowed right on the lawn, framed by a tiled blind area, the beds look simply amazing and decorate the site. Very good for mixed culture.In the center, they can have a frame or a trellis + for cucumbers and tomatoes. The ideal option is under a transparent roof: vegetables will be less sick with fungal diseases. Filled with organic matter: downwards - rough and not yet decayed, from above - ready-made compost. The walls may have holes for planting hanging plants. Excess water must be able to drain: the container is made without a bottom.

Dithyrambs to tall beds I see more and more often in magazines. Undoubted advantages: a) beautiful and easy to use b) gives the greatest opportunity to occupy a huge volume of different plants and on the trellis at the top, and on the surface of the compost, and on the sides - hanging plants c) contains a large volume of nutritious compost, which does not require frequent watering and fertilizers d) loaded in spring, warms itself and can be a greenhouse for early vegetables e) almost does not require weeding and loosening, finally f) takes up a minimum of space, does not create dirt and mess.

But at the same time a) it needs to be built, for which it is difficult to find the forces and means b) you need a lot of organic matter to fill and c) this organic matter must be of high quality and nutritious. These three tiny flaws make the container inaccessible to most summer residents. Thank God, there are options that almost do not lose their merits, but much simpler. And yet, keeping in mind the different tastes, let's give the container its due.

Firstly, thin materials (plywood, slate, thin boards and especially iron) are hardly suitable for the walls of the container, they get too hot in the sun. And you cannot put the container in the shade: there will be no harvest.

Next: the container is filled in layers. Rotten trunks and twigs, twigs, wood chips, shavings are placed on the bottom. All this is moistened with nitrogen fertilizer (urea or any complex fertilizer) and sprinkled with humus or earth. Further, if a warming effect is needed, a layer of manure or unripe compost, waste, grass, straw is placed. And the top layer is 15-20 cm of finished compost or humus. The latter is poured with a slide: over the summer, the garden bed will settle heavily. When the plants have already grown up, another layer of mulch is placed on top: husks, straw.

To irrigate the container, it is best to dig in several vertical containers: pipes with holes, plastic bottles. Even better is a plastic 5-liter bottle for drinking water. Filled them a couple of times - and all the watering. In this case, the soil is not compacted, which is very important.

You can also bury hoses with holes, wrapped in nylon stockings or other water-permeable synthetics under the humus, so that the holes are not clogged. The end of the hose is sticking out. It is necessary to water - attached the watering hose,

turned on the water quietly, and is free for 15-20 minutes. The main thing is not to forget to turn off the water in time.

ROOF is an expensive business, but under it tomatoes will not "burn" from late blight, and cucumbers - from peronospore (downy mildew). The spores of these harmful fungi germinate only in water droplets. If you protect the plants from rains, and even better - from the morning dew (cover overnight with foil or agril), the plants remain healthy until frost in any year without any preparations. And under the roof there is much less dew!

The container heats up quickly. Therefore, even heat-loving crops can be sown directly into it earlier than usual. It is easy to cover the sowing with foil for the first time. Having calculated the time and observing the desired arrangement of plants, you can first harvest the radish and watercress, grow a trellis of tomatoes and cucumbers in the center, grow carrots, beets, onions after the radishes, and then all this - the second time, and in the fall you still have time to harvest the salad or autumn radish. More on this later.

It is better to make the FRAME thoroughly: firstly, we have strong winds, and secondly, the weight of plants reaches 50 kg per linear meter in summer.

INSTEAD OF DIGGING, a new batch of compost is simply added in spring. You should not mix sand or earth with organic matter: from this it will thicken and settle more strongly. But expanded clay screening (trifle) is a good filler for compost. It is good to grow seedlings in it, adding mineral fertilizers and humus.

A container is reliable but expensive. However, there is a way to harness the power of spring compost without building a container. An additional compartment can be added to the compost heap. In the spring, the semi-finished compost that has lain under the film is thrown off there. Plants are sown in it - best of all zucchini, pumpkins, cucumbers, tomatoes. Radish on fatty humus goes "in burdock", and it is better to grow it on old humus. This year, on my compost, vegetables sprouted on their own - from discarded waste and fruits. They are almost a month ahead of everything I planted with seedlings, and they are raging in a way that does not happen in the beds with the best care.

I will sow the radish there. On the day of Chrysanthemum I'll give it to my mother-in-law. Will he serve sake.

They are especially suitable for humid northern regions: they warm up earlier, in case of waterlogging they do not get wet. Those who garden on the hills can do without them. But I know that many dacha areas on loam, especially the former rice paddies, are heated in spring, as well as in rainy summers. In such places, stone fruits need to be planted on hills or in raised boxes, and the boxes-beds are just in place: even in normal years, the soil here is compacted from below, and groundwater can feed the arable layer, therefore a thick layer of organic matter, gradually dragged by the worms all lower, best loosens and aerates the soil. On my salt marsh, the boxes help me out a lot.

A box is a stationary bed, fenced with bumpers made of boards, slate or other material. The height of the beds is 15-20 cm.It is filled with compost. The bottom layer can be semi-ripe manure or unripe compost, but on top you need to put a layer of ready-made humus, at least 6-7 cm.

If the box is wide (1-1.2 m), then it does not matter how it is located: rows of vegetables can stretch along or across the garden bed, but they should be located to the north-south. This will give the plants more sun. Narrow boxes are pulled north-south. We'll look at them later.

Just like the container, the box can have a trellis for cucumbers, tomatoes and beans. You can also hide it under the roof. We can say that the box is a low container. It does not need so much organic matter - this is a big plus. But on the other hand, a thin layer of organic matter is not so nutritious and quickly loses its nutritional value; in addition, it retains moisture worse and dries out rather quickly: in the heat it must be watered twice a week. Therefore, the box requires, as an addition, an initial digging with fertilizer, a hefty layer of mulch and a barrel for infusing organic matter - for fertilizing irrigation. Watering baskets is much faster by scooping up the buckets from a large reservoir and gently pouring it over the mulch. With a hose, at a moderate pressure, water the box for a long time: the area is large. Our pressure in summer is weak, and I finally decided to arrange reservoirs and an irrigation system: each garden bed has its own leaky hose. Now I am wasting both time and harvest only because I do not have time to properly water all the beds! But it is wise not to waste time and energy on this at all. Better to spend your money.

If the soil is good, it is not necessary to dig the box. The soil is intensively loosened under it to a great depth: already in the first year - twenty centimeters. In the spring, I only dump 3-4 wheelbarrows of new compost onto the garden bed. I sow and plant right into it. When the plants stand up, I put mulch from grass, husk, straw. Weeds - there are very few of them - are easy to pull out.

The main thing is to properly feed and water the box. Then in it, as in the container, you can grow three or four crops of different vegetables, from early spring to late autumn. With the help of wire arches or a simple frame, the box can be easily converted into a greenhouse. In spring, it is convenient to grow seedlings under the film. I assure you, the seedlings grown in such a greenhouse under lutrasil or under a film will be an order of magnitude better than the market one.

NARROW SEEDS AND NARROW BOXES

... And the narrowness of the garden in our time

speaks of the breadth of horizons.

Narrow beds are the most efficient and productive of all bed forms. Their width is no more than half a meter. And the passages between them are about a meter.Each bed is two rows of vegetables, planted along the edges in a checkerboard pattern in a thickened pattern (details will be given a little later).

Hidden in this geometry is a huge productivity reserve. It has long been noticed: the extreme plants develop almost twice as well as those in the middle - they have much more light and space for growth. Associated with this is the difficulty of successfully placing plants in a wide bed in a mixed culture. And here - all the plants are extreme. A wide aisle is needed in order to give them light and space.

The narrow bed method was developed in detail by Jacob Mittlider. He spread narrow beds all over the world. Tatyana Yurievna Ugarova was one of the first to master Mittlider's vegetable growing to perfection. Her book "Family Vegetable Growing in Narrow Gardens" is very popular and has already gone through several reprints. Soon it will appear with us. Sergey Dubinin, president of the SeDeK agricultural firm, also grows his vegetables in narrow boxes. His book "Harvest bed-box" has already been published. Sergey fills his boxes with organic matter.

A narrow bed can be planned straight from the soil. In this case, it is limited to earthen ridges. Watering goes to the root, and water does not flow out of the garden. Almost the same amount of vegetables is harvested from almost three times smaller area - what a plus! Can be placed under tall vegetables and a trellis. You can fence with boards made of boards and fill with organic matter: you get a narrow box with organic matter, or a narrow compost box. It is possible, according to Mittlider, to fill a narrow box with sawdust, sand or expanded clay and grow vegetables with constant watering on mineral dressings.

In the case of narrow ridges, the volume of soil used is greatly reduced. The role of nutrition is also increasing: one cannot do without tanks for organic infusions, or without mineral fertilizers. Watering narrow beds is much faster, but you have to do it more often. According to Mittlider - every day. This will not suit everyone, so I prefer to talk about narrow boxes with organic matter and a layer of mulch: they hold water well. The Mittlider men clean the inter-ridge cleanly. I don't think this is good for our climate. Better to gasify between the rows.

And if you have an unlimited amount of straw, shavings, sawdust - pour them in a thick layer between the rows: the soil should not dry out.

TRANCHES - NARROW RIDES FOR HOT CLIMATE

anyway they will ever bury it.

Little by little we combine the advantages of all the beds, reduce the cost and adapt to our conditions. If your plot never gets flooded, it is best to sink a narrow compost bin into the ground. Right in the sod I dig a trench two bayonets wide and bayonet deep. I put manure downstairs, and ready-made compost on top. I plant tomatoes, cucumbers, beans, cabbage, peppers in two rows. When they get up and grow up, I fill up the trench with husks. All work is watering every 3-4 days, and even less often with rains. True, you have to mow the inter-row with a sickle a couple of times over the summer: the grass grows. This year I covered the intertrench spaces with plastic sacking and piled hay on top. So far, excellent: it's already July, and the grass is still not growing!

Vegetables grow well in trenches, and with organized watering and feeding, they are simply excellent. The trench bed is deepened and loosened every year: the worms drag the compost. The main thing: trenches keep moisture well, and even with very moderate watering, both cucumbers and cabbage grow well. But it turns out that it is possible to bring this matter to a complete absurdity: there is no need to dig trenches for melons and gourds!

PITS - APOTHEOSIS OF Lazy Gardening

I’ll crash into a cake, I’ll move mountains, just to do nothing!

In the "Smart Garden" a barrel of vegetables is drawn. The idea is good, but in practice it turned out: in our heat, the barrel needs constant, best of all, drip irrigation. Let's bury this barrel in the ground!

I dig a hole about a meter by a meter, two bayonets deep. I dump a wheelbarrow of fertilized husk down. Then - a wheelbarrow of manure. And on top - a wheelbarrow of compost. I covered it with burlap, the edges of which I dug along the edges of the pit.Within a radius of 3-4 meters, he covered a carpet of weeds with cardboard, old rugs, then

I planted two dozen pumpkins and the same amount of corn in the pit. Pret, by leaps and bounds. I already regret that I didn’t sow cucumbers with corn in the middle of the pit: I would be trudging along the corn stalks now. All the work is to throw the hose for ten minutes once a week.

I try the same for melons, zucchini, watermelons. I see: for watering holes, it is better to dig in pipes or bottles and give more food.

Gazebos, fences and south walls

If your fence is made of mesh, then you have an excellent trellis for tall and curly vegetables. It is enough to dig a trench along the fence and fill it with organic matter. The net is especially convenient for beans and cucumbers. Minus small: in the fall you need to clean the net from the tops. But the plus is much greater: there is no need to build a trellis, and the bed does not take up space.

In the same way, you can surround a gazebo with a trench. Braided with various decorative pumpkins and beans with red and white or even purple (hyacinth beans) flowers, it looks great. You should not plant the gazebo with cucumbers: they quickly begin to hurt and completely lose their attractiveness.

The southern and eastern walls provide plants with additional warmth and reflected light, which greatly accelerates their development. Instead of a blind area, under my walls, there are beds of humus.

I put beans on the wall, a little further and below - cherry tomatoes,

and a row of kohlrabi or broccoli also fits, which to the beginning

These are nothing more than pits, complemented by a climbing frame. Cucumbers and beans feel especially good on them, as well as a rare couple: tladiant (red cucumber) and cyclantera (cucumber beans). They say they must grow together: the cyclantera pollinates the tladian, without which she herself does not set fruit. Growing two dozen cucumber bushes on one square meter is the dream of a real lazy person. Another plus: it is easy to cover the pyramid from frost with agril or film with clothespins. Finally, decorates the garden. And - no work, except for watering and garter plants at the beginning of summer.

It is still far from a concrete result, but the directions of movement are looming. It is necessary: ​​a) to use the geometry of narrow ridges,

b) on dry areas, lower them into the ground, and raise them on flooded areas, and in both cases fill them with organic matter and later mulch thickly c) where possible, squeeze them to pits and pyramids with organic matter and mulch.

Mow down all free spaces and between rows to turn wild vegetation into a motley lawn.

For trenches and boxes, arrange a pipe irrigation system with dug-in hoses and put tanks for infusions and solutions. Dig in pipes and bottles.

Moving in this direction, we can easily resist our droughts and come to a vegetable garden where the main job is to regulate the growth of plants with a pinch and a garter and harvest.

Give a time, and we will be able to simplify these operations to a minimum. It turns out that our direction is the way of "industrialization" of a small-sized vegetable garden with the obligatory "replacement of muscular power with the organizing power of the human mind."

The method of narrow ridges and boxes is described in detail in the books by D. Mittleider, T. Ugarova and S. Dubinin. But they are still rare, and this knowledge is needed by many. Therefore, I offer you Brief Basics of Narrow Row Vegetable Growing "with my comments.

.H 1 "SMART GARDEN IN DETAILS"

or Vegetable Garden almost no problem

... It is precisely the narrowness of this method

so expands its capabilities.

By combining different vegetables in a wide bed, I try to collect more vegetables from the same area. And it is not always possible to do it the way you wanted. The wrong quality or variety of seeds, an unexpected frost, or the seedlings stretched out, sat out, or simply did not predict the growth rate, did not take into account the thermophilicity - and now those who, according to the plan are lower, crawl out and crush those who should be higher, there is competition for space and light, and seedlings lagging behind in growth, finding themselves among the stronger ones, lag behind completely.

Narrow beds completely eliminate the problem of plant placement.It is enough to keep the distance in the row. Plants sit in two rows, each "looks" into a wide aisle and joyfully rushes to freedom, taking advantage of the opportunity to live to the fullest. This is how Ovsinsky sowed his plants, "in order to provide them with the necessary amount of light and, as it were, to lure them to the formation of heavy grain in the hope that it will immediately fall into free space."

The width of the beds is 40-50 cm, and the aisles are in a meter. If there is very little land, then the passages can be narrowed to 80 cm, but only if the site is fully and constantly illuminated. It only seems that the ground in the aisles is walking without benefit. It is the passages that work, and how! Firstly, a vegetable garden from narrow beds gives not less, but the same or even more vegetables per hundred square meters than an ordinary vegetable garden. Secondly, this is despite the fact that on a hundred square meters there are only 33 square meters of beds. Third, it means that the beds will get more watering and maintenance with less work. And fourthly, this work "is more convenient, more pleasant, and the garden is beautiful and pleasing to the eye. And if the aisles are mulched, then the roots and tops will completely master the space. My trenches are nicer to me than wide boxes: the plants look better, and there are problems with them So every year I make a couple of new trenches with pleasure, and I am interested in the garden.

I take many tips and figures from T. Yu. Ugarova's book "Family vegetable growing on narrow ridges". Tatyana Yurievna is a real maestro of narrow ridges, and her experience is the experience of a practitioner. In addition, many of the techniques of "narrow row" are common to reasonable truck farming. However, I will make a reservation: Ugarova exactly follows the Mittlider method and uses mineral fertilizing and daily watering. Plants in this case grow close to the conditions of the greenhouse soil, hence the guarantee of the harvest. I will consider organic beds with a small addition of mineral fertilizers, mulched and with irrigation, if possible - a summer cottage option. Therefore, I do not quote Tatyana Yuryevna's data on the yield of vegetables: she is unlikely to be the same with us. Although who knows! We have our advantages: mulch, almost eight months of summer, the search for better options for combining plants. And we will calculate the gross tax for the entire season!

HOW TO LOCATE AND ARRANGE NARROW SEALS

1. The beds are stretched in a very illuminated place to the north-south.

2. Cut with two cords stretched in parallel after 45 cm. Three options. a) A 45 cm wide strip is fertilized and dug up, plundered and planned to be horizontal (in the case of watering with a hose, even along a slight slope, the water flows in one direction). The earth is scooped up from the aisles and the sides are formed with a height of 8-10 cm.In the future, watering is carried out only inside the beds. If the soil is fertile and organic mulch is used, this option will be no worse than trenches with organic matter (Fig.), But it is rather difficult to maintain a horizontal line.

b) A bayonet-deep trench is dug along the cords, and there is no need to level it out and deepen the bottom. Only the walls should be even. To prevent the grass from growing into the trench, strips of cardboard, roofing material or films are placed on the sides, the edges of which are lowered into the trench by 7-10 cm.The strips are covered with excavated soil, which is later broken or trampled with a thin layer. It will be constantly dry, and the weeds on the mulch will practically not grow. I do not grow, except for the individual that made their way into the holes. The trench is filled with organic matter: downwards - manure and mineral additives (Ca, K and P), on top - 10-15 cm of compost (Fig.). c) Instead of cords, boards are placed, fixed with pegs, and the box is filled with organic matter, as in the case of a trench - with a slide. Can be made permaculture and cut off weeds by covering the bottom with paper. And if you want to immediately deepen the loose layer and get the maximum, the bottom of the box can first be covered with compost and dug up without turning, in thin layers.

In the case of poor, very clayey soil or a close gley layer (like mine), organic matter is necessary. Under our conditions, mineral fertilizers alone are unlikely to give an effect - well, perhaps with daily watering.And on organics, mineral water works well in small doses.

If the site is flooded, it is better to build boxes: in the trenches, plants can get wet after frequent rains.

3. A trellis is placed under tall vegetables. You can, of course, stick colas under the tomatoes, but the beds are stationary, and it is better to make a trellis or a frame from reinforcement and wire. The lower armature or wire should be at a height of 25-30 cm: it is more convenient to clip the film for spring shelters to it (Fig.). The upper reinforcement is at a height of 1.8-2 meters, in height. Between the upper and lower reinforcement - only vertical twines or wires. Plants are simply wrapped around them. For tomatoes, you need to stretch another middle wire, 70-80 cm higher than the lower one: tall bushes hang mainly at this level (Fig.).

4. Watering is done inside the garden bed. If it is mulched, then it is enough to water the trench once a week, the box - twice. But how long it takes! Therefore - I am not afraid to repeat this - it is better to arrange self-distribution of water. Option for water supply: a hose with millimeter holes is dug into the garden bed, to a depth of 20 cm (you can simply pierce it with a knife or a chisel) every 15--20 cm.The holes are best done on both sides - on the contrary. It is better to wrap the hose with some kind of synthetics or lay it between layers of straw, shavings - so that the soil does not clog the holes. The end of the hose just sticks out of the garden bed. The other end is plugged. It is necessary to water - I connected the irrigation hose to the end and turned on the water. You will determine the water supply time by experience. Such watering does not compact the soil and contributes to the rapid loosening of the bed bed and the distribution of humus in depth and breadth, which increases the fertility of the trench (Fig.).

Another option is for wells and tanks. Every meter, a bucket is dug into the garden bed, a plastic flask (5 or 3 liters), perforated from all sides in the lower half. You can also bottle, but you need three times more. Cut off the bottoms and dig it upside down 2/3 into the garden bed. Filling these containers with water is watering (fig.).

HOW TO SOW AND PLANT SEEDLING IN NARROW BEDS

1. Both seeds and seedlings are placed along the edges, in two rows, along the sides. Doubling is the trump card of narrow beds: all plants should be extreme. In the Mittlider method, it is necessary to leave the middle of the bed empty also because fertilizers are poured there and dissolved by watering. However, in the case of an organic garden bed, I dare to say: you can also use the center line for cucumbers, beans, tall tomatoes, or just sow the third line of carrots, onions, garlic, beets (photo 8). More on this in the next chapter.

2. A more rational arrangement of plants is used both in the rows and on the entire bed: not opposite, in the corners of a square, but with a shift, in the corners of a triangle, or "in a checkerboard pattern." Lower vegetables are thinned out taking into account this arrangement (carrots, beets, radishes).

3. The seeding and planting pattern in the row is thickened. I cite the data of T.

Yu. Ugarova on the location of plants. Perhaps we can plant plants even more often or place beds where the sun does not shine for a full day: in our south, the influx of heat and radiation from the sun is about a quarter more than in the middle lane, where Tatyana Yurievna is gardening. I will also introduce some amendments regarding the use of the middle of the bed.

4. You are unlikely to be able to withstand landing patterns without a marker. This is a 1-1.5 m long rail.On one side, it is divided into 8.5-17-34 cm, and on the other, 5-10-30 cm, each interval has its own color.

Coriander (cilantro) 5 Perennial onions - chives, batun, slug 5

These crops, as well as herbs, can be planted in three two-row rows (see illustration). For perennials, a special bed is allocated, where they take up little space, but for many years.

Carrots can be planted in two two-line rows (fig.), 5 cm each between the lines

Beetroot 5-8 (the less often, the larger the root crops)

Onions on turnips 5 Leeks 5

These crops can be planted in two two-row rows, but you need to give more between the lines: 9-10 cm.

Pepper, eggplant 30 Bitter pepper 25

Vegetable peas 3-5 Root and petiole celery 17

Bush beans 7 Parsnips 10

Chinese cabbage 10 Kohlrabi 17

Chard 17 Leaf lettuce 25

Head lettuce 20--30 Early wort cabbage 30

Cabbage w / c medium and late 35 Cabbage kr. / Koch. 35

Cauliflower 35 Broccoli 35

Brussels sprouts 60 Chinese cabbage 30

These crops are planted in two rows in a checkerboard pattern.

Bush tomatoes 30 Liana-shaped tomatoes. 17

Cucumbers in a spread of 25 Trellis cucumbers. 17

Zucchini, zucchini and squash 70 Pumpkins 100

These vegetables are planted in one row. However: a) if you put a two-row trellis under the climbing vegetables (one row after 45 cm from the other), their number in the garden can be increased by another half, or b) when planting vines in one row, use the bottom of the garden for low crops planted along sparse one and a half times the scheme. For example, I combined in a trench a row of cucumbers on a trellis and two rows of cabbage, and the results are good.

With 4-5 hours of shading per day, they fail: onions for turnips, vegetable peas, beans of all kinds, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, cabbage lettuce (does not form a head of cabbage), as well as cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, zucchini, pumpkins. The rest of the partially shaded vegetables are planted on average one and a half times wider in a row. These are: beets, celery, leeks, parsnips, rutabagas, Chinese cabbage, kohlrabi, Swiss chard, white cabbage and broccoli, Chinese cabbage, lettuce.

We will look at how to care for vegetables in the corresponding chapter. On narrow beds, the main care is the removal of old and diseased leaves, watering and feeding. For vine vegetables and tomatoes - garter and pinching. A lot of work is to harvest on time, to prevent the plants from overgrowing. But with this, I think we can handle it.

You are now familiar with all the options for beds, pits and trenches. This gives us the opportunity to more clearly represent your garden from a height, if not a bird's eye view, then at least the roof or a nearby tree. What do we see from there.

or An attempt to combine the reasonable with the beautiful

How many - so many. And everyone's is not like everyone else!

I often come across projects and plans of sites with the arrangement of trees and beds in the literature. Honestly, I don’t understand: how can they be used? After all, the author proceeded from very specific conditions: climate and microclimate, position to the cardinal points, slope, soil type, groundwater and flooding - all this is practically unique in each area. And the development of the site is different for everyone. And all the plants are planted very different, because everyone has different preferences. I'm not even talking about the fact that every owner strives to be the author of his dacha and hardly anyone wants to create a dacha according to the instructions. But the most important thing is the variety of possibilities. Not a single European dreamed of how diverse our possibilities are - some have that, others have only that, and still others have nothing at all! In such conditions, we can only endlessly increase intelligence, ingenuity and ingenuity. From here we have little chance of being anything other than a great and mysterious country!

In theory, the power of our rationalization thought should have already turned our gardens into paradise. But, suffering from collectivism syndrome, we often direct our thoughts somewhere outside, trying to change for the better everything, except our own life. It is as if we are striving to improve society and government, so that they, having become better, come and improve our life themselves, without our intervention. Mysterious logic. It is clearly not suitable for a vegetable garden: well, society does not know how to improve your garden, so much so that you like it! Therefore, as said, a vegetable garden is a good testing ground for success. Your vegetable garden should provide both vegetables and be a place for pleasure. It should be beautiful - for you and comfortable - for you. Therefore, I do not intend to give projects. But there are reasonable principles for the planning and maintenance of the site. Let's talk about them.

1. HOW MUCH AND HOW LARGE DO YOU NEED

You cannot give everything to everyone, because there is a lot of everyone, but there is little of everything.

Planning the number of vegetables needed for a year, and based on this, arranging the required number of necessary beds is an art accessible only to the most thoughtful among the most experienced gardeners. Do you know how much of what will grow in your garden beds? You hardly even know how much of what you need. This is often a mystery to me! And without seeing the product, you cannot get the technology either. Our gardens are a reflection of how much we understand what we want to grow!

Recently, I made a small observation: most of us are engaged in gardening and gardening not so much for the sake of the harvest as for the pleasure of seeing how it pours and ripens. Admire beautiful plants, even rows of beds, the power of greenery, and most importantly - the bulk of the harvest, and take part in this - yes! In a "bad year" we seem to have nothing to do with it, but in a good year - we raised it! Friends admire, neighbors praise, friendly tea and barbecue acquire an inexpressible charm for the owner. Then he started, work, grandchildren to school, stole, dug, fell out - eh. But you will not worry for a long time: you have already received your high. The real need for vegetables is exactly what you managed to eat and process, and then eat. And what is needed for joyful feelings about the ripening of the crop is anticipation. I estimate that anticipation is often ten times greater than the actual need.

"What are you talking about? The more the better!" Yes. And the same amount of earth is dug up. And there is only enough time and energy for the spring. In the spring, while the beds are still clean and empty, we especially strongly feel the anticipation and the very hope for a miracle that everything will finally grow by itself, without our guidance and assistance. But the enthusiasm fades: the plants do not match the anticipation, and the weeds and drought greatly overshadow the expectation. Some go to the other extreme: less is more. I think if we find a middle ground - a real need - we will get the first starting point, which will allow us to plan a vegetable garden, know the number of beds and act calmly and consciously.

I will try to help you with the calculations, avoiding any populism. Take Ugarova's data on the yield of narrow beds, calculated per square meter, or, which is the same thing, per two running meters of narrow beds. But taking into account our level of skill, the quality of seeds, etc., we will halve them. And, based on this picture of the real minimum, we will calculate what will turn out at least for the main crops. Fill in the last two columns of the table yourself - right here, in pencil.

Bushes for 2 pm narrow beds or 1 sq. m of land


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