Miscellaneous

Winter-hardy varieties of apples of domestic and foreign selection, the most delicious and popular

 Winter-hardy varieties of apples of domestic and foreign selection, the most delicious and popular


Winter hardiness is a very valuable property for apple trees, because it means more than just the tree's ability to endure hypothermia for a long time. This property includes the resistance of the variety to strong, prolonged frosts at the beginning and middle of winter, as well as to sharp or gradual recurrent frosts that occur after thaws.

Domestic winter varieties

In an apple orchard from an experienced gardener, as a rule, you can find not only summer varieties that ripen in July-August, but also winter varieties of apple trees. This approach is very prudent, because most varieties have a relatively low winter hardiness, and if you grow only popular summer varieties of apple trees, you can be left without a crop after severe prolonged frosts.

In addition, apples of summer varieties are good for eating as soon as they are ripe; not all gardeners can store them for several months. And winter varieties of apples, on the other hand, are great for long-term storage, and in addition, they become much tastier and more aromatic after they lie down for a while.

Summer apples are good to eat as soon as ripe.

However, growing winter-hardy apple varieties is more difficult: they require more heat than summer and autumn varieties, so it is necessary to carefully care for the soil, apply the necessary fertilizers, form the crown with minimal pruning, restrain the growth of cultivars and use other methods of “energy-saving” agricultural technology.

Video about winter varieties of apples

Now the choice of fruitful winter varieties of apples is very wide, and each gardener grows those varieties that he likes best for his taste. Previously, there was no such variety, and therefore almost in every garden one could find Renet Simirenko... This winter-hardy variety, bred in Russia, is famous for its excellent yield and drought resistance. Spreading trees of medium size bear fruit already in the sixth year of cultivation, bearing rather large round fruits, which fully ripen by the beginning of October.

Light green Semerenko apples with juicy tender pulp have an excellent wine-sweet, slightly spicy taste. With proper storage, the fruits do not lose their taste and presentation until the beginning of summer, only their color becomes yellowish.

Apples of the Renet Simirenko variety

The old one is no less popular in Russia. apple variety Antonovkacreated by folk selection. There are many varieties of Antonovka: White, Striped, Gray, Ribbed, Bulb, Sweet, Autumn, Steppe, One and a half pounds, etc. However, the most common is Antonovka Ordinary. Its yield is high, although not regular. Apple trees are resistant to scab and tolerate any changes in climatic conditions - even young trees and seedlings are never damaged by winter frosts. Therefore, the variety is considered grateful for the gardener, because you can be sure that the efforts will not be wasted.

In the Antonovka apple tree, apples have an intense characteristic aroma and a wonderful sweetish-sourish taste, the yellowish pulp is very juicy, grainy, crunchy, does not knit. The shiny skin of rounded fruits has a greenish-yellow color, which turns into a straw-yellow color during storage.

The Antonovka apple variety is good fresh and is perfect for processing into jam, juices, compotes, marmalade and marshmallow. The fruits are harvested in early October, they are well stored in the refrigerator until December, and apples can be stored in the basement until March, but their flesh will become loose and less juicy. This is the main disadvantage of the Antonovka variety.

Apple variety Antonovka

Among other winter varieties of domestic selection of apple trees, it is worth noting:

  • Sunrise,
  • Moscow winter,
  • Memory of a warrior
  • Bogatyr,
  • Imrus,
  • Enchantress,
  • Sinap Orlovsky,
  • Veteran, etc.

Winter varieties of foreign selection

Those apples that are ubiquitous on store shelves in winter can be grown in your own garden. The following imported winter-hardy varieties are suitable for cultivation in Russia: Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Jonagold, Red Delicious, Idared, Welsey. Consider those that are currently quite widespread in domestic gardens.

  • Jonathan

Apples Jonathan

The Jonathan apple variety, bred in the USA, is very popular among Russian gardeners. Apple trees are characterized by high winter hardiness, drought and scab resistance, but low resistance to powdery mildew. On medium-sized trees with a spreading crown, round-conical fruits of medium size ripen by the beginning of October. Jonathan's apples are light yellow with a red blush and stripes, the white flesh has a slightly greenish tint immediately after being removed from the tree, and after a while it becomes creamy. The fruit has a wine-sweet taste, a pleasant aroma, stored in favorable conditions until April-May.

  • Idared

Another fruitful American cultivar beloved by gardeners, resistant to major diseases of apple trees. Vigorous apple trees form a spherical, rather thickened crown, fruits begin to bear regularly from the fifth year. The apples are large, round in shape with a juicy, sour-sweet pulp of a pale yellow color and a delicate aroma. Over the main light green color, Idared apples are covered with a dark carmine or raspberry blush with streaks and thick stripes. They begin to remove the fruits from the last decade of September, the average storage period is from five to six months. During storage, the pulp becomes fine-grained, friable.

    Video about late varieties of apple trees

  • Golden Delicious

For its excellent sweet taste and high yield, the Golden apple variety of the USA selection is appreciated. Medium-sized apple trees with a medium thickened wide-pyramidal crown on a dwarf rootstock bear fruit already in the third year, and in the fifth year - on a vigorous rootstock. The variety is self-fertile, pollinators are recommended: Idared, Renet Simirenko, Kortland. The advantages of the Golden variety include good transportability of fruits and high winter hardiness, however, apple trees are unstable to powdery mildew and brown spot.

Golden apples ripen in September, and up to 120 kg can be harvested from the tree. Fruits are oblong, medium in size or larger than medium. The pulp has a pleasant creamy or light yellow hue, juicy, tender. Storage is possible until April.


The best varieties of winter apple trees

Adding an article to a new collection

It is generally accepted that red is the only sign of a ripe fruit. However, most often only winter varieties of apple trees can please with this color. Which of the late varieties are the tastiest?

Choosing winter seedlings, or, as they are also called, late apples, there are several important factors to consider. Winter apples do not acquire their optimal taste immediately after harvest, but within a few weeks or even months after harvest. In addition, the trees of such apple trees have increased winter hardiness and can easily endure both severe frosts and recurrent cooling after a thaw.


Why are late apple varieties good?

The main distinguishing feature of late apples is increased keeping quality... They are perfectly preserved until spring (some varieties are stored until summer) and at the same time do not lose their original taste and aroma. They are usually removed in late September - early October in the phase of removable maturity. The fruits at this time contain a lot protopectin and starch... During ripening, the proportion of coloring and aromatic substances in them increases.

Late apples become completely ready for consumption after a few months. Their shelf life, depending on the variety and environmental conditions, ranges from 4 to 8 months.

Benefits later varieties of apples are:

  • long shelf life
  • apples ripen and acquire a stable taste and aroma
  • dense texture and firm rind
  • good transportability
  • suitability for any kind of processing.

Late varieties of apples are also differentiated by shelf life by:

  • early winter (Antonovka ordinary, Winner, Pepin saffron, Parmen winter gold, Welsey) - stored until January-February
  • winter (Anise scarlet, Anise gray, Antonovka dessert, Aport, Kortland, Lobo, Mirnoe, Ranet bergamot, Northern Sinap, Sinap Orlovsky) - stored until March-April
  • late winter (Mantuan, Sary Sinap, Renet Orleans, Renet Champagne, North Sinap, etc.) - stored until May-June.

The main difference between winter and summer varieties of apples is that they are undesirable to eat right away - they must lie down for at least a month.


Autumn varieties

The autumn apple variety is removed from the trees by the end of September. The full ripeness of the fruit is not expected. The most suitable and popular varieties: Triumph, Cinnamon striped, Autumn striped.

Triumph

The semi-dwarf columnar tree has a maximum height of 2 meters. His crown is also compact. The tree, average in terms of winter hardiness, is conveniently sheltered from winter frosts.

Note. Triumph is ideal for small gardens. The weight of dark red striped apples does not exceed 150 g. The apples are crispy and juicy, with a strong aroma and honey-sweet taste. The harvest lasts 1 month.


Apple varieties that are stored for a long time. Review of the best varieties of winter apple trees

Most of the orchard of most summer residents and gardeners are apple trees. They grow best in mild climates. Despite this, they can be grown in less favorable weather. The most common are the winter varieties of apple trees.

Among the advantageous properties, resistance to low temperature conditions and, of course, a rather long period of storage of fruits are noted. Depending on the variety type, a person can enjoy fresh fruits all winter, from about 4 to 8 months they do not lose their qualities. The maximum border in this regard is early July. At this time, the early species of this fruit are already ripening. In other words - growing early and late apples, you can eat them all year round. But you should definitely adhere to the appropriate storage rules and temperature conditions. It is noteworthy that during storage, fruits do not lose their taste properties, as well as the level of starch and protopectin (a substance that allows you to establish the functionality of the body by removing toxins and harmful compounds).

Since the birthplace of this tree is a temperate zone, the largest apple-producing countries are located in this climatic zone (Germany, France, Ukraine, Italy, Russia, England, Poland, as well as the USA and China). It is here that the best winter varieties of apple trees are bred and rich harvests are collected.

Winter varieties of apple trees with photos and descriptions

Almost all varieties of winter apple trees (see photo with the name) have an excellent aroma, and it can be preserved for a long time. The peel of all winter-hardy fruits is much thicker than that of early and mid-early fruits. This also applies to the pulp - it is harder. These features provide resistance to damage, prevent decay processes, which means that the quality of the fruit is ensured even during long-term storage.

It should be noted that winter varieties of apple trees (reviews of experienced summer residents confirm this) are not always suitable for human consumption, if they are only plucked from the tree. Fruits do not yet have such a rich taste, and many of them can be sour. The period of full ripening begins in about 4-7 weeks, the fruit should be well laid down.

The hardy species of these fruit trees are classified into three categories:

  1. Early winter. The approximate shelf life dates back to the end of February (Pepin Saffron, Uelsi, Pobeditel, Antonovka ordinary, Winter gold Parmen).
  2. Average winter. You can eat the fruits until the beginning of May (Aport, Lobo, Anis Seryi, Antonovka dessert, Ranet, Sinap Orlovsky, Mirnoe, Kortland).
  3. Late winter. In terms of shelf life, they are the most stable, they can lie until early July (North Sinap, Mantuan, Renet Orleans, Sarah Sinap).

The best winter varieties of apple trees for the Middle Lane:

  • Jonathan. This is an American selection known to gardeners as Winter Red. A scarlet blush covers the fruits of medium-sized trees almost completely closer to harvest. Jonathan apples are delicious. After planting a young tree in the soil, a bountiful harvest can be expected in four years. Such winter varieties of apple tree seedlings do not exceed 3-3.5 m in height. On average, the fruits have about one and a half hundred grams of weight. The approximate shelf life is 160 days.


Features of winter apple trees

The harvest of winter apples only ripens in autumn. Most varieties from this category have a good property - the fruits do not crumble for a long time and hang on the tree until the very frost. They reach their full maturity only after collection, during storage. According to the keeping quality of apple fruits, it can be divided into:

  • early winter - the fruits will last until the New Year, maximum until February
  • winter - will help to decorate the festive table on March 8
  • late winter - will remain fresh until next summer.

Apples of each variety are modified in their own way during storage. The skin takes on a different hue, and the pulp acquires a taste. But there are common signs:

  • winter apples keep their presentation for a long time
  • well transported
  • do not deteriorate for a long time
  • over time they become more aromatic and tastier.


Dwarf apple varieties, photo

Dwarf apple trees grow where the area allocated for the garden is small. A dwarf apple tree is obtained by grafting the required variety onto a special stock. The tree grows to a height of only 2–4 m, compact. You can expect fruits already for 3-4 years. Collecting them at the same time, due to their short stature, is very convenient.

Dwarf apple varieties photo

The presented apple varieties with photos are very popular due to their qualities. When laying and planning a garden, it is worth making your choice in favor of several types. Planted together summer, autumn and winter varieties of apple trees for central Russia will provide you with the opportunity to enjoy these fruits almost all year round, from July to May. The above varieties of apples with descriptions and photos will help plan the planting of a beautiful, fruitful garden.


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