Diseases of apple trees and their treatment
Every seasoned gardener knows that summer cottage work is not easy. Ailments of fruit trees, especially apple trees, are becoming a serious problem for the summer resident. Instead of juicy fruits, we get sick trees with healthy pests.
Unfortunately, in our time there are many diseases that affect apple trees. The main thing is to detect the disease as soon as possible and start timely treatment, so that later you do not regret that the tree has died.... Let's talk about the most common diseases of apple trees.
Apple scab is one of the most common and harmful diseases for your fruit pets.
While the death of a tree with apple scab is a rare case, the tree suffers in a different way. The yield of the apple tree drops, the fruits are transformed into small, dry, curled fruits. Decreased shelf life, loss of desired vitamins and minerals in fruits are a consequence of finding a harmful guest at your dacha.
Pest control methods
Scab can and should be treated. There are several options for dealing:
- The main method of fighting - This is the destruction of the affected leaves of the apple tree.
Every autumn, summer residents rake up fallen leaves, sending them to compost, cover the ground with them by 7-8 cm. Cleaning of all rotten fruits from the site is also required. It is beneficial to spray trees with growth stimulants, thereby maintaining the health of the trees.
- Chemical treatment scab.
Scientifically proven drugs of chemical origin: fungicide "Rajok"; systemic fungicide "Strobi"; contact drug "Abiga-Peak"; solution "Fitolavin".
Preventing dark spots
- Removal of all existing weeds;
- Selection of highly resistant apple varieties;
- Regular removal of deeply damaged, fallen, rotten fruits;
- Collection of high-quality fruits intended only for seasonal storage;
- Separate storage of absolutely all harvested fruits.
Muhosed - dots on apples
The name is just that because black dots on apples that appear with an ailment resemble biological waste of flies.
Elimination of the disease
In case of illness of this type, the apple tree needs to be sprayed, as well as, if possible, capture the land cover. Such drugs as copper sulfate, oleocobrite can be safely used. All this must be done before spring. This will be the first stage of treatment. Later (second stage) spraying is done with copper oxychloride, phthalan... After a couple of weeks, it's time for the third final spray. It accepts previously used drugs of your choice. It is worth knowing that it is necessary to spray the apple trees several times per season. Also, the solutions can be alternated with each other.
The best results in treatment can be achieved if only the treatment is carried out before the main causative agent of the disease still penetrates the plants, so you should not lose your vigilance.
Fungal disease, which is distinguished by its rapid spread throughout the entire suburban area. Fungal spores spread quickly through rain, wind and human error (through the country inventory).
The disease is detected by summer residents in the spring during active budding. The virus spreads to the entire surface of the apple tree, settling in a white bloom... The fruits deteriorate, lose their taste, and often die. When the tree becomes completely ill, the ovaries begin to fall off, the branches dry and die off. In this case, the dew becomes an expressive brown color.
Prevention of occurrence
- For better prevention of disease and protection from dew, three times spraying of still healthy trees with fungicides.
- Useful pollination with sulfur at least four times, but only in the summer.
- The room with seedlings must be ventilated. a sufficient number of times, performing a clear humidity regime and avoiding strong drafts.
If you decide to cultivate powdery mildew-resistant apple varieties, then a prerequisite is cutting off the shoots affected by the disease. They need to be removed both in winter and in spring, especially at the end of flowering, when the organs of the tree are clearly visible.
How to get rid of white bloom
- Compliance with key agricultural techniques, that is prevention of soil desiccation.
- Execution of all points disease prevention.
Fruit rot - why did it appear and what to do?
Fruit rot of apple trees is one of the most common diseases of fruit trees in general. Scientific name - apple moniliosis.
Rot is several times more harmful than scab, because it tends to massively infect trees.
The foci of the disease occur in several places at once, spreading over the surface of the entire fetus. The pulp of the fruit becomes soft and unsuitable for nutrition. After a week, the brown spots transform into vague yellowish circles. These are the oppressive spores of the fungus, through which the infection entered the garden.
Branches and rotten fruits left on the apple tree are also sources of infection.... If the sanitization of the tree is not carried out properly, then the damage to the fruits increases. Later, the formation hardens, the subsequent multiplication of bacteria occurs in them. Fruit rot may invade your garden several times per season.
Causes of occurrence
- Damage and cracks in the bark of the tree;
- The relationship of infected fetuses with healthy individuals;
- Damaged apple peel;
- The presence of other diseases in the apple tree;
- Susceptible apple varieties.
How to deal with this problem
- Trim withered branches, bad fruits and dry leaves;
- Recycling from the apple tree;
- Relevant seasonal harvesting fruits ;
- Spraying crowns;
- Treat other diseases apple trees;
- Try treat all existing infections;
- Protect apple trees from mechanical and chemical damage.
Cytosporosis is a common fungal disease, which mostly affects only weak and old apple trees. It causes separate focal drying of the tree bark.
The bark affected by the disease usually dies off, and impressive cracks appear in its place.
Already dead pieces of the bark are covered with a viral fungus, which appears in the form of small tubercles. Old branches, which cease to be part of the tree, if the disease is not defeated, are not insured either. Weak from frost and the scorching sun, the tree dies after about 5 years of fighting the disease.
Causative agents of the disease
The cytospore fungus is the main causative agent of this disease. Its size is very small, no larger than a normal bacterium. The virus hibernates in cracks in the bark or in clots, the so-called spores. Rain and wind carries it to other treeswhere he also takes root in the blink of an eye. A person can infect his tree with cytosporosis simply by using garden shears.
Prevention and treatment
It is important to follow a number of rules when treating cytosporosis of an apple tree:
- Man needs to maintain the health of his trees, increasing their resistance to disease.
- Fertilize with potash and phosphorus fertilizers trees known to be susceptible to disease
- Preventive spraying trees with fungicides.
- Using resistant apple varieties.
Agricultural and technical measures play a huge role in the fight against cytosporosis, because effective pruning of branches, applying the necessary fertilizers, and regular watering can save the tree's life.
For the prevention of cytosporosis whitewashing of trunks and skeletal branches is mandatory (for 10.5 liters of water: 3 kg of lime, 300 g of vitriol and 1 kg of clay).
Bacteriosis is a very serious disease caused by specific types of bacteria. It can hit a tree abruptly and unexpectedly, killing it within one season.
In diseased trees, the bark becomes covered with dark spots., which will later cause the death of the bark. The depressions formed by the disease ensure cracking and peeling of the bark. The buds begin to turn black, completely taking on the color, while the leaves are framed around the edges. All foliage eventually curls up, withers and hangs from the tree as black icicles. The disease can be rapid and chronic.
In a quick situation, the tree dies in one summer.... In the chronic variant, the tree becomes sick and dies off gradually over the next few years.
It is easiest to detect a disease or its prerequisites in May.
Measures to combat bacteriosis of apple trees
- At the very beginning of the development of this disease, it is recommended treat wood with 50% zinc chloride three times with an interval of 3-4 days.
- In autumn and spring cut the affected branches with the capture of 7-8 cm of healthy tissue.
- Disinfect the cut 1% solution of copper sulfate, or 3% solution of ferrous sulfate, or 5% carbolic acid with the obligatory covering with garden putty.
- The best option is to carry out the prevention of bacteriosis in early springthen when the hateful spores are actively multiplying.
Milky glitter is a poorly understood disease, and little is known to scientists and breeders about how to combat it. There is a version that the shine appears due to freezing of the tree trunk or acute starvation of the plant (water or mineral).
It is believed that infection occurs through a poisonous mushroom, the spores of which penetrate into the tree through cracks or other damage in the bark. The shine itself is of a gray metallic color, but this is only from the upper side of the sheet. From the bottom, the color changes from purple to brown during the period of illness.
Fungus spores infect wood mainly in wet, wet weather.... At such a time, it is better to refrain from pruning, so as not to replenish the mechanical wounds of the apple tree trunk. The disease spreads from one branch to whole hollow parts of the tree over several years.
Signs of a milky sheen
At the same time, science does not know exactly what kind of fungus infects trees and what methods of struggle to use against it. The virus is known to penetrate wood, destroying it. Outwardly, the disease is invisible until the leaves are covered with a metal curtain.... As a result of this disease, the fruits become tasteless, unsuitable for storage and consumption.
How to fight?
It is necessary to grow zoned trees, acquire disease-resistant breeds, monitor the winter hardiness of the individual, that is:
- do not grow trees in wet, swampy areas;
- do not deprive the apple tree of a spectrum of fertilizers to increase immunity;
- water trees abundantly only in the first half of the growing season;
- in autumn and spring, the trunks should be coated with milk of lime (2 kg of lime per 10 liters of water) with the addition of copper sulfate;
- prune and burn heavily affected parts of the tree;
- clean the bark from mechanical damage and cracks, disinfect them with a solution of copper sulfate (10-20 g per 1 liter of water).
If all efforts to combat the disease are in vain, then it is advisable to destroy the infected trees.
Black apple crayfish
Recently, the phenomenon of black cancer has been spreading more and more in gardens. It is apple trees that are most susceptible to this disease. Black cancer can rake whole masses, therefore, it is considered an extremely dangerous and serious incident.
"Antonov fire" - the second name of the black cancer is based on a fungal disease, which affects weakened and old trees, slowing down its development so much that it could not heal itself.
First, brown spots are formed on the painful area, pressed into the bark. At the very beginning of the development of the disease, the tubercles are very small. They are just not noticed by gardeners, missing the opportunity to cure the tree ahead of schedule. In the future, the bark begins to crack, char and, in the end, disappears.
- Spots on the leaves. In early spring, during the opening of the leaves, strange spots are found on them. The defeat looks mild, but later increases in size. The purple spots are covered with a black crust, the bodies of the black virus.
- Leaves fall ahead of time. Shortly before the fruit ripens, the apple tree begins to shed the leaves affected by cancer. The yield decreases, the quality deteriorates - the changes are noticeable immediately.
- Fruit rot. Instead of the long-awaited harvest, you get rotten fruits covered with brown spots.
Why does the trunk of an apple tree turn black with black cancer?
- Great age of the garden. The virus rarely infects a healthy tree, because the old tree is weakened, it does not have the strength to fight. Such plants become prey for diseases.
- Poor care. Lack of attention given to the tree attracts disease. Lack of watering and feeding makes the plant susceptible to cancer.
- Sun and frost burns. The bark of trees, not protected by whitewashing, suffers terribly from the scorching sun and harsh frosts. Temperature surges also harm trees.
- Incorrect cropping. Carrying out late pruning is a risk of introducing black crayfish, therefore, disinfection of garden tools is required.
- Varieties that are unstable in your region. First of all, those trees that are not adapted to the climate in which they grow get sick. Therefore, you need to be very careful when buying new seedlings.
- Apple tree pests. All parasites and pests of summer cottages carry viruses and bacterial spores.
Symptoms of black cancer:
- The formation of brown spots on the bark, which are invisible at first,
- A sooty black bloom on the bark
- Charring the affected area on the tree trunk,
- Healthy bark lifts, flakes off,
- Cracks and other damage are located over the entire surface of the bark,
- Over time, the condition of the tree only gets worse.
How to treat?
- High agricultural technology Is an effective protection against black apple cancer
The main thing is not to forget about:
- Regular watering,
- Fertilizing the soil with various mixtures,
- Elimination of stalks,
- Fight against parasites and pests,
- Seasonal whitewashing of trees.
- Treatment activities.
Therapeutic measures are based on point # 1 (agricultural technology). Preventing disease is easier than curing a tree.
Active treatment is carried out in the spring. It consists in cleaning the wounds of a diseased and healthy bark. Disinfect the diseased bark with a 2% solution of copper sulfate. Copper-based eco bark paints are also effective.
Root cancer is a bacterial disease. On the roots of the tree, nodules are formed, growths of various sizes, which begin to rot. Bacteria penetrates through soil pests.
Root cancer appearance
Looks like tumors of a whitish shade, soft in structure. The growths can be up to 12 cm in diameter, hardening to a hard wood state.
It is noted that a diseased tree grows sharply, after which it begins to settle.
Root outgrowths create a nutritional deficit for the tree, reduce its resistance to the environment and longevity, and also delay sap flow, reducing productivity.
Root Cancer Control Measures
- Before planting seedlings, you need them carefully inspect for defects or outward signs of illness.
- If growths are found, they should be removed., and disinfect the root site.
Saplings of new trees are best planted in place of cereals or legumes. It is this soil that will serve as a good basis for growth. Also, planting mustard next to an apple orchard is a good prevention against root cancer.
Rust on the apple tree
Rust on an apple tree is a common and very dangerous plant disease in the garden.... Rust is not difficult to guess - formations (pustules) appear on the apple tree.They have various sizes and shapes, but when cracked, they crumble with a rusty powder. This is a viral fungus.
Signs of rust on an apple tree
- Bulging spots and stripes rusty color with a characteristic powder.
- Drying and subsidence leaves.
- Star-shaped growths on yellowish leaves.
Rust mushrooms spend the winter on juniper bushes, so this pleasant neighborhood is best avoided.
Why is rust dangerous?
- Causes complete death of leaves, and then other parts of the tree.
- Decreased winter hardiness, the quality of the fruit, the yield in general, the loss of the tree in general.
- Loss of moisture, which means a slowdown in photosynthesis in plants.
- Protect the apple tree from juniper in general or green spaces.
- Remove all diseased parts of the tree if it is already infected.
- Spray the damaged area with chemicals.
- In the spring, resume cleaning the affected areas, followed by disinfection.
Brown spot (phyllostictosis)
It affects the leaves of not only apple trees, but also pears, plums, quince. Angular, rounded spots with a brown rim appear on the leaves.
The spots can blend in with the color of the leaves, covering the entire surface. In the center of the pigments there are clear black dots, the mushrooms themselves. The affected tissue (leaves) exfoliates in the form of a transparent film, and then dies off.
The defeat of brown spot comes during the treatment of trees with concentrates, so summer residents think that spots are a specific reaction of trees to pesticides... Young leaves are more infected, which then lose their elasticity and juicy color.
The disease develops in conditions of humidity and poor ventilation, where the air is stale.
Protective measures against leaf disease
- Disease-resistant apple tree species are preferred;
- Compliance with agrotechnical, chemical rules of care;
- Application of fertilizers, dressings, spraying and natural solutions.
Disease control measures
- Growing resistant varieties.
- On household plots - collection and burning of fallen leaves.
- In industrial gardens, plowing to destroy diseased leaves.
Prevention of diseases of apple trees
It is necessary to carry out the prevention of any diseases, both in young and in adult plantings. Particular attention should be paid to apple trees that do not have biological protection against pathogens.... And, of course, it is important to acquire new horticultural crops that are full of health and beauty. In order for an apple orchard to please with a harvest, you need to know the general rules for caring for it, as well as the dangers that can be avoided.
For the early prevention of viral diseases, a system for protecting apple trees from pests is being implemented. It includes spraying against aphids and cicadas. To do this, use the insecticides available in your stores.
- When to spray an apple tree?
In early spring, before bud break, as well as in mid-autumn until the first cold weather. This prevention destroys insects and fungal plants that infringe on the health of apple trees, or, conversely, develops the tree's immune system against them.
- Natural immunity.
The main prerequisite for the normal growth and development of a tree is its stable immunity. This can be achieved by observing the rules for caring for an apple tree: fertilizing, fertilizing, watering, pruning the crown, destroying weeds, cultivating the soil, spraying against bugs. All these procedures will guarantee the good health of your garden pet.
- Small leaves.
To prevent your garden from being exposed to small leaves among the trees, you can plant alfalfa near the apple planting, which provides nearby plants with phosphates, zinc and copper.
- Whitewashing the apple tree.
Apple tree whitewashing schedule - 2 times a year. At the same time, remember that you need to whitewash not only the trunk of the tree, but also the branches of the lower tier.
- Top dressing of the apple tree.
Top dressing is carried out 3-4 times per season. Root top dressing is for soil penetration and top dressing is a spraying method. The rule is that in dry weather we use liquid fertilizing, and in wet weather we use dry.
- Pruning branches and processing the trunk.
Sanitary pruning is the removal of broken and diseased branches. Cleaning the bark is mandatory, after which all cracks in the bark are treated with pitch.
- Digging the soil.
After removing weeds and excess plants, start digging the soil to a depth of 10 cm. Try not to injure the roots of the tree. While digging around the perimeter, scatter mineral fertilizers that will be perfectly absorbed by the roots during this period.
Diseases and parasites of our apple trees are a real problem in the garden... But if you grow a young apple orchard wisely, be able to provide timely assistance to your beloved tree, then you will not only cure it, but, perhaps, save your life.
Diseases of apple trees and their treatment
Pests and infections, mechanical and thermal damage, improper watering and unbalanced soil composition create favorable conditions for the development of various kinds of apple diseases. They can be of fungal, bacterial and viral origin. The descriptions of the main ones presented below will help to recognize the problem in time and start the fight to save the crops and trees from damage. Sometimes, early treatment can help prevent their complete death.
- Fungal diseases
- Brown spot (phyllostictosis)
- Milky shine
- Powdery mildew
- Black cancer
- Bacterial infections
- Bacterial burn
- Bacterial cortical cancer (necrosis)
- Bacterial root cancer
- Viral diseases
- Starry fruits
Black apple crayfish, or Antonov fire (Latin Sphaeropsis malorum)
The disease is caused by the fungus Sphaeropsis malorum Peck and affects fruits, trunk, skeletal and thick branches, apples and bark. The affected trunk and branches resemble charred ones, as if burnt by fire. Most often, black cancer is observed in apple trees weakened by the underlying disease.
Black cancer on the trunk of an apple tree
The risk of cancer increases if the tree is not properly cared for and is burned or chilled. Cancer is often found in gardens growing on loamy, moisture-rich soil and in areas with large temperature fluctuations, especially in autumn. It affects apple, pear and other stone fruits.
How to recognize black cancer
The disease is diagnosed in the summer. An air temperature of 22-28 degrees Celsius is ideal for spreading fungal spores.
- If there is a suspicion of a disease, then the bark of the tree is carefully examined through a magnifying glass. If small ulcers with black dots on the edge are found, the diagnosis is confirmed. Points are pycnidia where fungal spores mature.
Pycnidia is the fruiting body of a disease-causing fungus that brings forth spores called conidia.
- Outwardly, the cancer is clearly visible on the leaves: brown spots with a gray center appear, which spread throughout the plate. The foliage dries and falls off.
- On the bark, the cancer resembles depressions on which a gray plaque forms. After a while, the plaque turns black. The healthy bark at the point of contact with the diseased one cracks and the trunk of the tree is exposed. On apples, the disease resembles rot and can even affect plucked fruits.
How to deal with black cancer
- Sick areas are removed and exposed areas are disinfected with a solution of copper sulfate. Everything that has been removed is burned.
- After disinfection, areas without bark are covered with garden varnish or a mixture of mullein and clay in a 1: 1 ratio.
- The foliage on the tree is treated with Bordeaux liquid.
- Examine the bark of trees in spring and autumn.
- Cut dry and damaged branches in time.
- Carry out preventive control of parasites.
- Treat the skeleton and wood stem to avoid burns and frost cracks.
Pests and methods of dealing with them
Aphids on an apple tree and how to get rid of it
We are all familiar with an insect that affects the deciduous part of the plant and is capable of severely fraying a tree. How to get rid of aphids on apple trees?
In the fight against them, their natural enemy is most effective - plant ladybugs on a tree, if possible.
As an alternative method, you can carry out the treatment with a 0.3% solution of karbofos.
Caterpillars on an apple tree: processing in spring
There can be different caterpillars: moths, leafworms, silkworms, moths, fruit moths, etc. The methods of dealing with them are quite universal., since all caterpillars begin to show activity in early spring, then we will spend wood processing with nitrophen (3%) and chlorophos (0.7%).
Cobweb on apple tree
Dense and thick nets are not twisted by spiders, but by caterpillars of an apple moth... Under such "tents" new caterpillars are hatched, eating the leaves and shoots of the tree, and if their spread is not stopped in time, the nets will cover the entire crown of the already devastated apple tree. To prevent this, it will be enough to carefully remove all the cobwebs along with the caterpillars and eggs, and then treat the tree with insecticides.
Ants on apple tree
These pests will not destroy the tree, but they will thoroughly spoil the crop - they feed on both young buds and fresh fruits.
To get rid of ants, it is important to remember that their appearance in the garden is inextricably linked with the presence of aphids (ants feed on their honeydew), therefore, these insects must be removed in a complex.
How to treat apple trees in early spring from pests and diseases? Means are suitable: "Raptor", "Combat", "Muravyin", "Muratsid", "Anteater".
A tick on an apple tree
You can see them at the tips of the leaves, where they suck up the sap of the plant. So that ticks do not appear on the tree, old bark must be periodically removed and burned, and the tree itself must be treated with solutions of malofos or dicofol.
Another video about how the correct processing of apple trees in the spring from diseases and pests is done, advice from professionals.
Maintaining the health of the apple tree and, as a result, consistently getting beautiful and undamaged fruits is within the power of every gardener, even without the help of a specialist. The main thing is to follow the rules for caring for the tree and not neglect prevention.
Gardeners often confuse lichens on apple tree trunks with diseases. They can range in color from silvery green to gray-black. By themselves lichens do not bring any harm to apple trees, but due to the fact that pests like to hibernate under their cover, it is better to protect trees from risky neighbors.
Remove lichens mechanically, preferably with a scraper, since a metal brush can damage the bark.
They are mostly easy to clean. If it is not possible to remove immediately, produce spraying overgrown with lichen area soapy water and after 20 minutes, peel off without using force.
Lichen on the trunk of an apple tree.
If the bark on the apple tree is damaged annularly, to restore sap flow and save the tree, it is necessary to apply inoculation with a "bridge". This method can only be used in early springuntil the tree is fully awake, and the grafting material is harvested before the buds begin to open.
An example scenario:
- An apple tree was found in the winter garden, the bark of which was destroyed in a circle by hares
- We immediately prevent the apple tree from drying out - we put putty on the damaged area or (in severe frost) oil paint, wrap it in burlap and leave it until spring
- Cut the cuttings for the scion
- With the beginning of sap flow with an interval of 3 cm, we graft the bridges in a slightly arcuate manner, carefully applying a scion with necessarily removed buds to match the cambium
- If not all cuttings take root, the next year you can repeat the procedure to improve the nutrition of the apple tree.
Not a single gardener is immune from the occurrence of diseases of apple fruits or leaves. However, everyone can do everything in their power to prevent the spread of disease. To do this, you need to take timely preventive measures seriously. If you monitor the condition of the garden and detect the problem in time, it will be very easy to treat it with fairly simple methods.
I am a professional copywriter with a wonderful hobby - apple orchard. My free time from work I devote not only to him, but also to the study of the peculiarities of growing various varieties of apples. I want to systematize my knowledge and, based on my professional experience, share it with a wide audience. Write your opinion about articles and questions in the comments.